I run Linux exclusively and I was not happy when my Android device stopped enumerating as a mass storage device. The OS version I have right now doesn’t automount MTP, so how am I supposed to get files on and off of my phone? There are several options, but I think the most simple answer is to use ADB.
I have long ago figured out all the commands and syntax used with the Android Debug Bridge, but I can’t say the same for Fastboot. That’s a tool that compliments what ADB brings to the table. It can flash image files directly from your computer, unlock the bootloader, and a lot more (if you know what you’re doing).
Check out XDA Senior Member Ricky310711‘s guide thread covering common uses of both ADB and Fastboot. You may remember his Android Everything Tool that was featured on the XDA Portal last Saturday. He’s also been working on this guide since the end of April.
Included is a zip for Windows users that provides the packages needed to run ADB and Fastboot, but you may want to use this suite that always installs the latest versions. I wouldn’t say this is a noob-level guide, but anyone who’s had to look up an ADB command to get it to work (or needs a very quick refresher on Android partitions) will benefit from his accumulation of knowledge._________
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