Android 12 – xda-developers https://www.xda-developers.com Android and Windows Phone Development Community Wed, 01 Dec 2021 17:04:28 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8.2 Amazon Appstore is currently broken on Android 12 https://www.xda-developers.com/amazon-appstore-broken-android-12/ https://www.xda-developers.com/amazon-appstore-broken-android-12/#respond Tue, 30 Nov 2021 20:32:36 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=564417 Amazon Appstore is one of the most popular app stores for Android, outside of Google’s own Play Store. Not only is it the default place to download apps and games on Amazon’s Fire tablets, but it’s also available on other Android devices, and it’s built into the new Windows Subsystem for Android. However, it seems

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Update 1 (12/1/2021 @ 12:00 ET): Amazon has provided the following statement to XDA:

We are aware and working to resolve an issue impacting app performance and launches for the small number of Amazon Appstore users that have upgraded to Android 12 on their mobile devices. This issue does not impact Amazon Fire Tablets or Fire TV devices.

The article as published on November 30, 2021, is preserved below.

Amazon Appstore is one of the most popular app stores for Android, outside of Google’s own Play Store. Not only is it the default place to download apps and games on Amazon’s Fire tablets, but it’s also available on other Android devices, and it’s built into the new Windows Subsystem for Android. However, it seems like the Appstore isn’t fully working on the latest Android update.

PiunikaWeb reported on a series of complaints (via 9to5Google) from people using the Amazon Appstore on Android 12 devices, like the Pixel 6 series and Galaxy S21. In some cases, select apps are unavailable for purchase or download, while others are unable to load the Appstore at all. Applications and games installed from the Amazon Appstore also usually fail to open.

https://www.reddit.com/r/GooglePixel/comments/qh3g8t/error_with_the_pixel_5a_android_12_using_the/hjtglj4/?context=3

Amazon confirmed the problem in a support forum thread, with one staff member saying, “our technical team is aware of the issue. I checked and they are still working on the resolution.” The Amazon Appstore on Android 12 has also been updated to display a message warning that some functionality is broken.

Amazon hasn’t confirmed the source of the problem, but Liliputing reports that Android 12 could be conflicting with Amazon Appstore DRM. At least one person was able to decompile an app from the Amazon Appstore, remove references to Amazon’s DRM, and recompile with a self-signed certificate to make it work again.

It’s not a great sign that Android 12 was in beta testing for months, and was finally released in October of this year, but Amazon is seemingly only fixing the issue now. Still, it looks like the Appstore could be restored to full functionality on Android 12 soon.

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Paranoid Android Sapphire Alpha based on Android 12 is here for the OnePlus 8/8 Pro https://www.xda-developers.com/paranoid-android-sapphire-alpha-android-12-oneplus-8-8-pro/ https://www.xda-developers.com/paranoid-android-sapphire-alpha-android-12-oneplus-8-8-pro/#respond Tue, 30 Nov 2021 08:31:58 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=563951 Following the official Android 12 announcement early last month, Google started uploading the Android 12 source code to AOSP. Soon thereafter, the Paranoid Android team started working on Paranoid Android Sapphire — the latest version of the custom ROM based on Android 12. The team has now finally started rolling out the first alpha builds

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Following the official Android 12 announcement early last month, Google started uploading the Android 12 source code to AOSP. Soon thereafter, the Paranoid Android team started working on Paranoid Android Sapphire — the latest version of the custom ROM based on Android 12. The team has now finally started rolling out the first alpha builds of Paranoid Android Sapphire for a couple of devices.

As per a recent post on our forums, a Paranoid Android Sapphire alpha build is now available for the OnePlus 8 and OnePlus 8 Pro. The custom ROM is based on Android 12, and it packs most of the new features Google introduced in the latest OS upgrade. In addition, the custom ROM includes wallpapers from Hampus Olsson, some UI improvements to enhance user experience, and more.

If you’d like to try Paranoid Android Sapphire on your OnePlus 8/8 Pro, you can download the ROM from the XDA Forums thread linked below. However, note that you may encounter some unexpected issues since it’s an alpha release. If you’re fine with that, make sure your phone is running an Android 11-based OxygenOS build before installing the ROM.

It’s also worth mentioning that the Paranoid Android Sapphire alpha release for the OnePlus 8 and OnePlus 8 Pro has some known issues with Wi-Fi Direct and 5G connectivity. It also doesn’t support custom kernels, unless the kernel specifies that it supports Paranoid Android.

Paranoid Android Sapphire Alpha for the OnePlus 8/8 Pro

To install the ROM, download the latest fastboot zip on your phone from the link above, reboot to the bootloader, and flash the fastboot zip with “fastboot update aospa-*-image.zip”. Once that’s done, reboot to recovery and wipe userdata.

If you’d like to try other Android 12-based custom ROMs on your phone, check out our comprehensive list of Android 12 custom ROMs available on our forums. It includes ROMs for quite a few popular devices, including OnePlus flagships going back to the OnePlus 5, the Samsung Galaxy S10 series, several Redmi phones, and more.

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How to enable the Google Pixel 6’s Game Dashboard on older Pixel smartphones https://www.xda-developers.com/how-to-enable-pixel-6-game-dashboard-older-pixels/ https://www.xda-developers.com/how-to-enable-pixel-6-game-dashboard-older-pixels/#respond Mon, 29 Nov 2021 17:00:04 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=561823 With every new Google Pixel smartphone release, we see some new and interesting features exclusive to the new device. Eventually, some of these features make their way to older smartphones via official updates or aftermarket mods. Likewise, with the Pixel 6 series, Google introduced a dedicated Game Dashboard tool in conjunction with Android 12‘s gaming

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With every new Google Pixel smartphone release, we see some new and interesting features exclusive to the new device. Eventually, some of these features make their way to older smartphones via official updates or aftermarket mods. Likewise, with the Pixel 6 series, Google introduced a dedicated Game Dashboard tool in conjunction with Android 12‘s gaming mode APIs that provides quick access to a handful of useful tools, as well as widgets for streaming to YouTube Live, showing achievements from Google Play Games, and changing the performance profile. According to Google, the Game Dashboard will be available on “select devices” running Android 12 in due course, but none of the old generation Pixel phones has received the feature as of yet.

Google Pixel 6 XDA Forums ||| Google Pixel 6 Pro XDA Forums

Fortunately, porting the whole Game Dashboard module is surprisingly easy — at least for Google Pixel devices with Android 12. The fact is, all the codes related to the dashboard are already present in Google’s build of SystemUI (not AOSP SystemUI, though), but the availability of the feature is controlled by a parameter. As pointed out by Mishaal Rahman, one can easily extract the relevant configuration data from the firmware package of the Google Pixel 6/6 Pro. If you’re the owner of a Google Pixel 5a, Pixel 5, Pixel 4a 5G, Pixel 4a, Pixel 4, Pixel 4 XL, Pixel 3a, Pixel 3a XL, Pixel 3, or the Pixel 3 XL, you can then place the configuration file in its proper location to enable Game Dashboard on these models.

For the convenience of our readers, here is the textual view of the configuration data:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<!-- These are configurations that should exist on devices that support Game Dashboard -->

<config>

        <!-- This feature is meant to be the feature identifying devices that support

             Game Dashboard -->

        <feature name="com.google.android.feature.GAME_OVERLAY" />

</config>

You need to save the above code snippet as “game_overlay.xml” and place it at /product/etc/sysconfig of your Pixel device. We have also mirrored the ready-to-use version of the file, which can be found below:

Download game_overlay.xml extracted from the Google Pixel 6

Keep in mind that copying the XML file to the aforementioned location needs root access. If you’re no stranger to Magisk modules, you can also create a simple module to do the job. We hope older Google Pixel devices will get the Game Dashboard in their upcoming Pixel Feature Drop, but until then, this is something worthwhile for mobile gamers to try out.

    Google Pixel 6
    The Pixel 6 comes with Google's new Tensor chip, a modern design, and flagship cameras.
    Google Pixel 6 Pro
    The Pixel 6 Pro is the larger sibling that comes with Google's new Tensor chip, a modern design, and an extra telephoto camera.

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Samsung Android 12 Tracker: Here are all the official One UI 4.0 stable and beta builds to download and install https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-one-ui-4-android-12-update-tracker/ https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-one-ui-4-android-12-update-tracker/#respond Mon, 29 Nov 2021 10:00:15 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=532887 It’s that time of year again when Google releases the new version of its mobile operating system! The stable version of Android 12 is finally here after a long few months of beta testing, and a range of smartphone makers have already announced that they plan to roll it out to their users. Being one

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It’s that time of year again when Google releases the new version of its mobile operating system! The stable version of Android 12 is finally here after a long few months of beta testing, and a range of smartphone makers have already announced that they plan to roll it out to their users. Being one of the largest Android OEMs, Samsung is also busy finalizing the features exclusive to its custom skin, One UI, on top of the new version of Android in preparation for an eventual rollout of One UI 4.0 via the stable channel.

When it comes to beta testing, the Korean OEM kicked off the Android 12-based One UI 4.0 beta program for the Galaxy S21 series back in September. Although Samsung has already published its Android 12 update roadmap for some regions, the company will likely bring a handful of other devices into the beta phase, including older flagships and even some mid-rangers, before the eventual stable release. The public beta initiative is being conducted through the Samsung Members app, hence Galaxy device owners are advised to check the schedule for their region by opening the app and heading to the “Notices” section.

This article will serve as the central repository of download links for all Samsung devices that have received their official Android 12 updates in the form of One UI 4.0, including both the public beta and the stable builds.

Navigate this article:



List of Samsung phones that have received Android 12

This article covers Samsung devices that have received an Android 12 update in the form of One UI 4.0 — be it (public) beta or stable — in any region. Since none of the Galaxy devices participated in Google’s Android 12 Developer Preview program, we will solely follow Samsung’s nomenclature of build numbers in the index below for the sake of simplicity.

Here are the devices that have received at least one Android 12 build with One UI 4.0 till date. Note that the devices are sorted alphabetically for their retail name.

  1. Samsung Galaxy Note 20 (c1s/c1q) — Added on 11/09/2021
  2. Samsung Galaxy Note 20 Ultra (c2s/c2q) — Added on 11/09/2021
  3. Samsung Galaxy S20 (x1s/x1q) — Added on 11/09/2021
  4. Samsung Galaxy S20+ (y2s/y2q) — Added on 11/09/2021
  5. Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra (z3s/z3q) — Added on 11/09/2021
  6. Samsung Galaxy S21 (o1s/o1q) — Added on 09/13/2021
  7. Samsung Galaxy S21+ (t2s/t2q) — Added on 09/13/2021
  8. Samsung Galaxy S21 Ultra (p3s/p3q) — Added on 09/13/2021
  9. Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3 (b2q) — Added on 10/29/2021
  10. Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3 (q2q) — Added on 10/29/2021

Generic flashing instructions are available at the bottom of this article. However, we advise users to refer to the device forums for specific flashing instructions for their device, in case there are any variations or special instructions that need to be followed.



You can find download links of One UI 4.0 public beta and stable releases below. These builds are first sorted with device names, and then according to their regions/SoC variants and release. Notably, the concept of a downgrade ROM isn’t applicable here. It is also worth mentioning that you can’t cross-flash a firmware that is intended for a Qualcomm Snapdragon SoC-based Samsung Galaxy model (e.g. the USA variant) on its Exynos-powered counterpart (e.g. the European variant) or vice-versa.

1. Samsung Galaxy Note 20 (c1s/c1q)

 Samsung Galaxy Note 20 Mystic Green rear

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For the unlocked 5G variant (SM-N981U1)
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK7)
  • DUJ7 to ZUK7
November 18, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • ZUK7 to ZUKA
November 23, 2021
India For SM-N980F/981B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1)
  • 4G Variant (SM-N980F)
    • DUJ6 to ZUK1
  • 5G Variant (SM-N981B)
    • N/A
November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • 4G Variant (SM-N980F)
    • ZUK1 to ZUKA
  • 5G Variant (SM-N981B)
    • N/A
November 23, 2021
United Kingdom For SM-N980F/981B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1)
  • 4G Variant (SM-N980F)
    • DUJ6 to ZUK1
  • 5G Variant (SM-N981B)
    • DUJ6 to ZUK1
November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • 4G Variant (SM-N980F)
    • ZUK1 to ZUKA
  • 5G Variant (SM-N981B)
    • ZUK1 to ZUKA
November 23, 2021

2. Samsung Galaxy Note 20 Ultra (c2s/c2q)

Samsung Galaxy Note 20 Ultra

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For the unlocked 5G variant (SM-N986U1)
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK7) November 18, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA) November 23, 2021
India For SM-N985F/986B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1)
  • 4G Variant (SM-N985F)
    • N/A
  • 5G Variant (SM-N986B)
November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • 4G Variant (SM-N985F)
    • N/A
  • 5G Variant (SM-N986B)
November 23, 2021
United Kingdom For SM-N985F/986B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1)
  • 4G Variant (SM-N985F)
    • N/A
  • 5G Variant (SM-N986B)
    • DUJ6 to ZUK1
November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • 4G Variant (SM-N985F)
    • N/A
  • 5G Variant (SM-N986B)
November 23, 2021

3. Samsung Galaxy S20 (x1s/x1q)

Samsung Galaxy S20

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For the unlocked variant (SM-G981U1)
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK7)
  • DUJ7 to ZUK7
November 18, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKB)
  • ZUK7 to ZUKB
November 23, 2021
India For SM-G980F/981B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1)
  • 4G Variant (SM-G980F)
  • 5G Variant (SM-G981B)
    • N/A
November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • 4G Variant (SM-G980F)
  • 5G Variant (SM-G981B)
    • N/A
November 23, 2021
United Kingdom For SM-G980F/981B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1)
  • 4G Variant (SM-G980F)
    • DUJ5 to ZUK1
  • 5G Variant (SM-G981B)
November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • 4G Variant (SM-G980F)
    • ZUK1 to ZUKA
  • 5G Variant (SM-G981B)
November 23, 2021

4. Samsung Galaxy S20+ (y2s/y2q)

Samsung Galaxy S20 Plus in hand

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For the unlocked variant (SM-G986U1)
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK7) November 18, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKB) November 23, 2021
India For SM-G985F/986B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1)
  • 4G Variant (SM-G985F)
    • DUJ5 to ZUK1
  • 5G Variant (SM-G986B)
    • N/A
November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • 4G Variant (SM-G985F)
  • 5G Variant (SM-G986B)
    • N/A
November 23, 2021
United Kingdom For SM-G985F/986B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1) November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA) November 23, 2021

5. Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra (z3s/z3q)

Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra in hand

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For the unlocked variant (SM-G988U1)
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK7) November 18, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKB) November 23, 2021
India For SM-G988B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1)
  • DUJ5 to ZUK1
November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • ZUK1 to ZUKA
November 23, 2021
United Kingdom For SM-G988B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUK1) November 9, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA) November 23, 2021

6. Samsung Galaxy S21 (o1s/o1q)

Samsung Galaxy S21 in pink

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For SM-G991U/U1
1.1. One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUID)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G991U)
    • AUGQ to ZUID
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G991U1)
September 13, 2021
1.2. One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUJ1)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G991U)
    • ZUID to ZUJ1
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G991U1)
    • ZUID to ZUJ1
October 5, 2021
1.3. One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G991U)
    • ZUJ1 to ZUJG
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G991U1)
    • ZUJ1 to ZUJG
October 25, 2021
1.4. One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G991U)
    • ZUJG to ZUK1
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G991U1)
    • ZUJG to ZUK1
November 2, 2021
1.5. One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK7)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G991U)
    • ZUK1 to BUK7
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G991U1)
    • ZUK1 to BUK7
Click Here November 16, 2021
Germany For SM-G991B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUIC) September 13, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUJ1) October 5, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG) October 25, 2021
1.4 One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1)
  • ZUJG to ZUK1
November 2, 2021
1.5 One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK8) Click Here November 15, 2021
India For SM-G991B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (Beta testing started with ZUJ1)
  • AUIE to ZUJ1
October 5, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG)
  • ZUJ1 to ZUJG
October 25, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1)
  • ZUJG to ZUK1
November 2, 2021
1.4 One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK8)
  • ZUK1 to BUK8
Click Here November 15, 2021
United Kingdom For SM-G991B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (Beta testing started with ZUJ1) October 5, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG) October 25, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1) November 2, 2021
1.4 One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK8) Click Here November 15, 2021
    Samsung Galaxy S21
    The Samsung Galaxy S21 is the starting point of the new 2021 flagship series, packing in a flagship SoC, along with a decent display and camera setup.

7. Samsung Galaxy S21+ (t2s/t2q)

Samsung Galaxy S21 Plus in Violet 1257796696 in violet

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For SM-G996U/U1
1.1. One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUID)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G996U)
    • AUGQ to ZUID
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G996U1)
    • AUH9 to ZUID
September 13, 2021
1.2. One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUJ1)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G996U)
    •  ZUID to ZUJ1
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G996U1)
    •  ZUID to ZUJ1
October 5, 2021
1.3. One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G996U)
    • ZUJ1 to ZUJG
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G996U1)
    • ZUJ1 to ZUJG
October 25, 2021
1.4. One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G996U)
    • ZUJG to ZUK1
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G996U1)
    • ZUJG to ZUK1
November 2, 2021
1.5. One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK7)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G996U)
    • ZUK1 to BUK7
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G996U1)
    • ZUK1 to BUK7
Click Here November 16, 2021
Germany For SM-G996B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUIC)
  • AUHD to ZUIC
September 13, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUJ1)
  • ZUIC to ZUJ1
October 5, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG) October 25, 2021
1.4 One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1) November 2, 2021
1.5 One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK8)
  • ZUK1 to BUK8
Click Here November 15, 2021
India For SM-G996B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (Beta testing started with ZUJ1)
  • AUIE to ZUJ1
October 5, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG)
  • ZUJ1 to ZUJG
October 25, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1)
  • ZUJG to ZUK1
November 2, 2021
1.4 One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK8)
  • ZUK1 to BUK8
Click Here November 15, 2021
United Kingdom For SM-G996B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (Beta testing started with ZUJ1) October 5, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG) October 25, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1) November 2, 2021
1.4 One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK8) Click Here November 15, 2021
    Samsung Galaxy S21 Plus
    The Samsung Galaxy S21 Plus is the middle child in the new 2021 flagship series, packing in a flagship SoC and a premium build, along with a decent display and camera setup.

8. Samsung Galaxy S21 Ultra (p3s/p3q)

Samsung Galaxy S21 Ultra in hand

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For SM-G998U/U1
1.1. One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUID) September 13, 2021
1.2. One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUJ1) October 5, 2021
1.3. One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG) October 25, 2021
1.4. One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1)
  • Carrier variant (SM-G998U)
    • ZUJG to ZUK1
  • Unlocked variant (SM-G998U1)
November 2, 2021
1.5. One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK7) Click Here November 16, 2021
Germany For SM-G998B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUIC) September 13, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUJ1) October 5, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG) October 25, 2021
1.4 One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1) November 2, 2021
1.5 One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK8) Click Here November 15, 2021
India For SM-G998B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (Beta testing started with ZUJ1) October 5, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG) October 25, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1) November 2, 2021
1.4 One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK8) Click Here November 15, 2021
United Kingdom For SM-G998B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (Beta testing started with ZUJ1) October 5, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUJG)
  • ZUJ1 to ZUJG
October 25, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 4 (ZUK1) November 2, 2021
1.4 One UI 4.0 Stable (BUK8) Click Here November 15, 2021
    Samsung Galaxy S21 Ultra
    The Samsung Galaxy S21 Ultra is the ultimate overkill in the new 2021 flagship series, packing in a flagship SoC, a premium build, a great display, and an amazing camera setup, as well as all the extras expected on a premium flagship.

9. Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3 (b2q)

Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For the unlocked variant (SM-F711U1)
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUJH) November 2, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA) November 16, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUKG) November 23, 2021
India For SM-F711B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUJF)
  • AUJ7 to ZUJF
October 29, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA)
  • ZUJF to ZUKA
November 16, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUKG)
  • ZUKA to ZUKG
November 23, 2021
    Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3
    The Galaxy Flip 3 is Samsung’s new clamshell-style foldable phone. It features a 6.7 inch 120Hz flexible screen and Snapdragon 888 SoC.

10. Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3 (q2q)

Galaxy Z Fold 3 folded halfway with an S-Pen Pro nearby

Sr. No. Channel, Build Number, and Region Recovery ROM Odin ROM Added On/Status Last Updated
USA For the unlocked variant (SM-F926U1)
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUJH) November 2, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA) November 16, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUKG) November 23, 2021
India For SM-F926B
1.1 One UI 4.0 Beta 1 (ZUJF) October 29, 2021
1.2 One UI 4.0 Beta 2 (ZUKA) November 16, 2021
1.3 One UI 4.0 Beta 3 (ZUKG) November 23, 2021
    Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3
    The Galaxy Z Fold 3 is Samsung's latest and greatest foldable phone. It brings several improvements over the previous model, including high refresh rate displays, an under-screen camera, and top-of-the-line hardware.


Flashing Instructions for One UI 4.0

We have a dedicated flashing guide for Samsung Galaxy users so that they can easily sideload OTA packages or install the official One UI firmware from scratch. Take a look at the following tutorial — especially the Sideloading through recovery section — to get a clear idea about installing the One UI 4 OTA ZIP files.

How to update your Samsung Galaxy smartphone and install official firmware

Note that the above is more of a generic set of flashing instructions that should generally be applicable to any Samsung Galaxy device out there. However, there is a possibility that there is a variation that is unique to your device (such as a carrier model), so we strongly advise visiting your device forums for device-specific instructions.

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Xiaomi is testing MIUI 13 internally, with Android 11 and Android 12 bases https://www.xda-developers.com/xiaomi-testing-miui-13-android-11-android-12-bases/ https://www.xda-developers.com/xiaomi-testing-miui-13-android-11-android-12-bases/#respond Mon, 29 Nov 2021 09:51:54 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=563405 Xiaomi is gearing up to unveil its next flagship smartphone lineup in December. Recent leaks suggest that the lineup will include a device named Xiaomi 12X (codename psyche), featuring Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 870 chipset, a 50MP primary camera, and a 6.28-inch FHD+ AMOLED display. Now, a new leak suggests that the device could launch with MIUI

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Xiaomi is gearing up to unveil its next flagship smartphone lineup in December. Recent leaks suggest that the lineup will include a device named Xiaomi 12X (codename psyche), featuring Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 870 chipset, a 50MP primary camera, and a 6.28-inch FHD+ AMOLED display. Now, a new leak suggests that the device could launch with MIUI 13 out of the box.

According to Xiaomiui, Xiaomi has started testing MIUI 13 for the Xiaomi 12X. The publication has spotted internal beta builds of the software with the build numbers V13.0.0.46.RLDMIXM and V13.0.0.56.RLDCNXM. The build numbers confirm that the software release will be based on Android 11.

Xiaomi 12X MIUI 13

(Image: XiaomiUI)

In a separate post, XiaomiUI reveals that Xiaomi could also launch the upcoming Redmi K50 (codename poussin) with MIUI 13 based on Android 11. Note that since we’re still months away from the Xiaomi 12X and Redmi K50 launch, Xiaomi could update the devices to an Android 12-based MIUI 13 release.

It’s worth noting that Xiaomi has also started testing MIUI 13 based on Android 12 for a couple of older devices, including the Mi Mix 4, Mi 11 Ultra, Mi 11, Redmi K40 series, Mi 10S, and Mi 11 Lite 5G. MIUI 13 internal beta builds for these devices have already been spotted with the following build numbers:

  • Mi Mix 4: V13.0.0.3.SKMCNXM
  • Mi 11 Ultra: V13.0.0.8.SKACNXM
  • Mi 11: V13.0.0.8.SKBCNXM
  • Redmi K40 Pro: V13.0.0.8.SKKCNXM
  • Redmi K40: V13.0.0.3.SKHCNXM
  • Mi 10S: V13.0.0.4.SGACNXM
  • Mi 11 Lite 5G: V13.0.0.5.SKICNXM

Note: The ‘R’ and ‘S’ in the aforementioned build numbers indicate the Android version. ‘R’ stands for Android 11 and ‘S’ denotes Android 12.

At the moment, we don’t have access to download links to these MIUI 13 builds as they’re only available for the internal test team. The internal builds will be promoted to x.x.1.x releases when they are deemed good enough for wider testing, at which point we should see some links being made available in the “stable beta” format. We’ll make sure to let you know as soon as the builds become available in the closed beta channel.

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Android 12 Review: My favorite iteration of Android yet https://www.xda-developers.com/android-12-review/ https://www.xda-developers.com/android-12-review/#respond Sun, 28 Nov 2021 12:00:57 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=550723 Android 12 has been here for about a month, and I’ve been using it as my daily driver on the Google Pixel 6 Pro since its launch. Android 12 represents API level 31, and it arrived in the form of an AOSP source code drop a few weeks before rolling out to Pixel smartphones. In

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Android 12 has been here for about a month, and I’ve been using it as my daily driver on the Google Pixel 6 Pro since its launch. Android 12 represents API level 31, and it arrived in the form of an AOSP source code drop a few weeks before rolling out to Pixel smartphones.

In previous years, the new Android version would roll out to previous Pixel phones ahead of the launch of whatever new device is coming, but Google held back this time around. The cynic in me feels that it was for marketing purposes — after all, the entire tagline for the Pixel 6 series was that it was “For All You Are” with a heavy focus on personalization. Given that Android 12 is all about personalization, I don’t really think it’s controversial to think that Google intentionally held back the Android 12 Pixel rollout in order to reveal it alongside a new smartphone with a completely new look and feel when compared to its predecessors.

There’s a lot to delve into when it comes to Android 12, and while I’m comfortable in saying it’s my favorite Android version from an aesthetic point of view, I’m unsure if it’s my favorite overall. Google continues to blur the lines of what’s a Pixel-exclusive feature and what’s an Android 12 feature, but everything that I’ve identified as a Pixel exclusive feature will be identified as such.

Navigate this review:


Material You and other UI changes

By far the biggest change in Android 12 is Material You

By far the biggest change in Android 12 is Material You, the latest version of Google’s Material design language. Material You, as Google describes, “seeks to create designs that are personal for every style, accessible for every need, alive and adaptive for every screen.” When developing Android 12, Google created a new theme engine code-named “monet” that generates a rich palette of pastel colors derived from the user’s wallpaper. These colors are then applied to various parts of the system and their values are made available through an API that the user’s applications can call, thus letting apps decide whether they want to recolor their UI. Google has been going all-in on Material You, and the company has updated most of its apps to incorporate dynamic colors.

If you want to learn more about it, you can check out our explainer of how Material You works.

Quick Settings

Android 12’s quick settings seem to be extremely polarising. There are some pretty big buttons, a whole new opening animation, and everything is very rounded. I love the new pull-down animation, though I miss the gaussian blur behind the notifications. The solid color doesn’t do it for me, even if it is also Material You inspired. Still, this new pull-down animation is one of my favorite animations in all of Android.

Android 11 quick settings

I think that Android 12's notifications and quick settings look a whole lot nicer

When compared to Android 11, I think that Android 12’s notifications and quick settings look a whole lot nicer. I know that there are a lot of arguments saying that you lose out on useful space (it does drop from six easily accessible settings to four), but you also gain additional space in the pull-down menu. There are now eight options as opposed to six, and the six that were previously shown were just the same six that were quickly accessed anyway. In other words, to access the next two settings, on Android 11 you needed to pull down, pull down again, and then swipe across. On Android 12, you just need to pull down, pull down, and then you already have access to two more toggles than you would have had previously.

To be honest, I also think it’s probably better if the buttons contain the name of the function, too. I’m a power user, so I know what the icons mean, but does everyone really? I’m sure some of the basic ones like Wi-Fi nearly everyone could hazard a guess at, but the do-not-disturb option, in particular, is one that I could see confusing people. There’s also a power button that brings you to a power menu, though the default behavior from Android 12L is that the power button in the quick settings will open up the Assistant first unless you long tap it.

I think that the most redundant addition to the quick settings has to be the Google Pay card. You don’t ever need to open Google Pay to pay with your card, as it works from any screen on your phone at any time. The only time you’ll really ever need to open it is to choose a specific card if you want to use one that isn’t your default, but how often do most people do that? I also don’t really ever use the smart home device controls option, as my lights are voice-activated. I access the device controls part of my phone maybe once a week at most.

Another controversial change made in Android 12 is how you switch off Wi-Fi on an Android 12 device. Tapping the internet quick settings tile will bring you to another menu where you can toggle your mobile data, your Wi-Fi, or select another Wi-Fi network.

android 12 quick settings

If I’m honest, I personally do prefer this change over what it once was, but I can understand the frustration thanks to the introduction of an extra button tap. From my own experience, I feel that it makes sense for Wi-Fi and mobile data to be under the same umbrella. However, if you want to get back a dedicated button to toggle your Wi-Fi, Mishaal Rahman shared a command on Twitter that you can execute via adb to get it back.

adb shell settings put secure sysui_qs_tiles "$(settings get secure sysui_qs_tiles),wifi"

Overall, I think that the new notifications drawer and quick settings are well designed, and I do prefer both of them, even if I would have liked to see the apps behind my notifications akin to previous Android versions. I think that a lot of these changes make sense, and I don’t necessarily buy into the hatred of some of them.

Widgets

Google’s suite of apps has a ton of Android 12 Material You-compatible widgets, and they all take after whatever the dominant system theme is. They can be sometimes slow to change to fit the rest of the system theme, but they adjust based on where they’re located on the home menu, too. I still don’t really ever use Android’s widgets (I don’t spend a lot of time on my home screen or really care about making it look fancy anymore), but for people that do, you might like these changes.

Google announced an overhaul of widgets in Android 12, and the company definitely delivered. To align with the visual changes in Android 12, Google is encouraging developers to implement widgets with rounded corners with padding. The Widgets API was reworked entirely in order to enhance user experience across multiple platforms, Android variants, and launchers. Widgets got more dynamic controls that allow you to interact with checkboxes, radio buttons, and switches right from your home screen. The widget picker even offers responsive previews.

The new API also adds support dynamic coloring as part of the Material You theming engine, allowing widgets to adapt to the wallpaper, like other visual elements. Google has also removed the required configuration step when placing a widget on the home screen and has added a new API to construct backward-compatible widgets.

Interestingly, the information from widgets can now be accessed by Google Assistant to offer quick insights using the Capabilities API. In a blog post, Google noted that the Assistant would be able to provide users with “one shot answers, quick updates, and multi-step interactions” by glancing over the information available in widgets.

Pixel Launcher (Pixel exclusive)

Pixel Launcher with themed icons Pixel Launcher app drawer Pixel Launcher extra settings

The Pixel Launcher is obviously a Pixel exclusive feature, and it’s as barebones as ever. There’s a search bar permanently stuck at the bottom of the screen, an at-a-glance widget at the top, and the Google app sits to the left of the home screen. It’s simplistic and it works, but I know a lot of people would prefer to be able to remove the Google search bar.

The Pixel launcher comes with the ability to offer up suggestions of apps to launch, both in the dock at the bottom and in the full-length app drawer. App suggestions are powered by artificial intelligence and are based on your phone’s usage. I’ve noticed that the apps at the bottom often differ from the recommended apps in the app drawer, suggesting that the recommended apps in both of these places are calculated differently.

Pixel Launcher wallpaper and style Pixel Launcher wallpaper and style

The Pixel Launcher also allows for changing the app grid size, enabling themed icons, and switching between a dark and a light theme. The themed icons are marked as “beta” which… is good because they don’t look great. I like the idea that Google is going for with them as they’re Material You themed, but they don’t look good, especially when unsupported apps are shown right beside them.

The Pixel Launcher is very much the iOS launcher of the Android world

The app drawer also has a Pixel-exclusive device-wide search that’s available for more than just searching in your apps. This is called “Universal Search”, and it’s built on the AppSearch service, meaning that other OEMs could easily build a feature like this into their variants of Android if they wanted. It can search through contacts, apps, app shortcuts, settings, and more. It’s great for finding your playlists on Spotify, for example. You can enable a feature so that every time you pull up your app drawer, your keyboard will also be raised and you can immediately start typing. I tried using this for a while but eventually turned it off.

The Pixel Launcher is very much the iOS launcher of the Android world. It lacks quite a lot of customization that we’ve come to expect from the likes of Nova Launcher or any of the other best Android launchers you can get. Some people like that simplicity, and while I don’t mind it, having options to play around with is cool.

Recents URL Sharing (Pixel exclusive)

Recents URL sharing is a Pixel-exclusive feature that allows users to share links to recently viewed web content straight from the recent screen. Any app can enable it, but it’s enabled by default in Google Chrome, and it’s a quick and easy way to share links across applications and adds even more functionality to the Recents menu.

Other changes

Android 12 battery stats Android 12 battery stats

My biggest gripe with Android 12 is the change in how battery statistics are displayed. Particularly as a reviewer, these are extremely problematic for a number of reasons. Not only are the axes not labeled in any way, but the data is so much less usable than before. My app usage over the past 24 hours doesn’t reset after charging my phone, meaning that I can no longer show screenshots of battery statistics after a day of usage. I’ve resorted to using another app, GSam, just to collect data for battery statistics. It’s made even worse because each bar is a two-hour gap, which offers me practically nothing. It’s almost insulting that Google added that functionality as if it’s an improvement over older Android versions. That part is a Pixel exclusive by the way — you can’t tap those bars in Android 12 by default.

Android 12 keyguard fingerprint sensor Android 12 keyguard pattern lock

Another small gripe that I have is that the under-display fingerprint scanner doesn’t show up at the same time as the pattern keyguard. You can either input a pattern or put in your fingerprint, and if you swipe up to access your pattern, you then need to swipe back to access your fingerprint sensor. Why can’t both be enabled? It would make more sense and be more cohesive, especially because the keyguard itself doesn’t take up a lot of space. It feels like a weird decision, especially when other OEMs have figured this out already.


Performance class

Android media performance class

The Android Compatibility Definition Document is an important part of the Android ecosystem. In order to maintain consistency in APIs and platform behavior between Android devices, Google bundles the distribution of Google Mobile Services (which includes applications and frameworks like the Google Play Store and Google Play Services) with license agreements mandating that devices adhere to the rules under Google’s “Android Compatibility Program” (among other requirements). The Android Compatibility Program consists of multiple automated test suites and a set of rules enumerated in the CDD (CDD PDF for Android 12 available here).

In the case of Android 12, there are a couple of changes that the CDD outlines, but most are pretty small or really only have an impact on OEMs. One of the biggest changes we’ve seen was the introduction of a “performance class” that can be defined in the build properties of an Android smartphone. Google already announced this alongside the release of Android 12 Beta 1, and it’s an easy way for developers to check how fast an Android smartphone actually is. On the Android Developers page, Google says that each version of Android has its own corresponding performance class, which means there’s a performance class for Android 12 and there’ll be one for Android 13, 14, and so on.

Performance classes are forward-compatible. This means that a device can upgrade to a new Android version without changing its performance class, but it also means that devices can change their class if they meet the requirements of that new OS version. Some key requirements for performance class 12 are below.

Performance class 12 key requirements

  • At least 6GB of RAM
  • At least 400dpi and 1080p resolution
  • At least 120MB/s sequential write, 250MB/s sequential read, 10MB/s random write, and 40MB/s random read speeds
  • Must have (at minimum) a 12MP rear camera capable of 4K 30 FPS recording
  • Must have (at minimum) a 4MP front-facing camera capable of 1080p 30 FPS recording

Performance classes may be useful for app developers to improve the overall experience on not just devices meeting the “performance class” spec, but also for lower-end phones. If an app detects a phone doesn’t meet the requirements for a “performance class” device, they can turn off certain, more demanding features or visual effects in order to improve the way that the app works on lower-end phones. Likewise, it can also detect if it’s running on one of the best Android phones, in which case, it can enable high-performance features.

In the past, we’ve seen Google attempt to define different types of minimum hardware for particular functions. Remember Google’s Daydream VR? The company set out a minimum compatibility requirement in the CDD for Daydream-compatible devices with the launch of Android 7.1 Nougat. Some of those requirements included a physical core requirement, Vulkan support, screen size minimum and maximum, HEVC and VP9 support, and more. This is clearly an evolution of that concept, though applied more broadly across the Android ecosystem.

Confusingly, performance classes seem to be released in tandem with Android versions but also operate independently of them. A device on Android 12 can launch with performance class 12, and then upgrade to Android 13 in the future but maintain its older performance class. A performance class for Android 11 was defined retroactively in the CDD.

The purpose is a confusing one, but it seems to just be a minimum specification that apps can check out and see if they’re running on a reasonably powerful device or not. I’m not sure what exact way an app developer would make use of these specifications, but I think that additional information about the device being made available to app developers is ultimately a good thing, even if it likely needs to be fleshed out and given a particular purpose. It seems that right now, it’s primarily aimed at “media performance”, which explains why a lot of the focus is on storage speed, screen resolution, and camera capabilities.


Privacy

Privacy has increasingly been one of Google’s biggest focuses over the past few years. Over 2.5 billion devices are running Android around the world, and such a big install base means there’s a lot of unwanted interest from threat actors. That’s why each new version of Android adds features to ensure your sensitive information is available only to you. Android 12 introduces a ton of new privacy-related changes. Not only is there the new headlining Privacy Compute Core (currently a Pixel-exclusive), but there’s also the Privacy Dashboard, camera and microphone indicators, location controls, and more.

Over 2.5 billion devices are running Android around the world

Privacy Dashboard

Privacy Dashboard in Android 12 Privacy Dashboard in Android 12 Privacy Dashboard in Android 12

This new privacy dashboard screen gives users information on how frequently components such as the camera, microphone, and location are accessed by apps, and it also lets users know which apps are accessing them, how often they’re accessing them, and lets users revoke those permissions if they think they’re accessing them too often. It’s a fantastic addition that makes it really easy to see how vital permissions are accessed by various different apps.

Reduced location access

Android 12 approximate location access request Android 12 precise location access request

Android 12 has introduced the ability to give apps an “approximate” location rather than a precise location. For example, think about your weather app. Does it really need to know your exact address? Generally not, and it makes more sense that all it might need is knowledge of your general locality. This concept has been implemented in Android 12 so that you can decide whether an app gets access to your precise location or an approximate location.

Clipboard access notification

Android 12 clipboard notification

Google added a toast message that appears when an app accesses your clipboard. We’ve all stored sensitive data on our clipboard before, generally because we need to copy that data from one place to another. However, previous to Android 12, apps could access the clipboard at will, and there was no way to know if and when they were doing it.  The toast does not show if the request to access the clipboard originates in the same app that it was copied in.

Camera and microphone access

Android 12 microphone camera cutoff

You can cut-off camera and microphone access from your phone’s quick settings with ease, and the best part is that the system handles it for you. As a result, apps will gracefully handle the cutoff and won’t crash if you suddenly revoke access, so long as they follow best practices. For example, apps will just see a black viewfinder when camera access is disabled. These toggles are not in the quick settings by default and need to be dragged out manually. In my opinion, I feel that privacy-centric features such as these should be surfaced and made much more prominent to the end-user so that they know they exist.

Private Compute Core (Pixel-exclusive)

Private Compute Services is said to provide a privacy-preserving bridge between the Private Compute Core and the cloud, making it possible to deliver new AI models and other updates to sandboxed machine learning features over a secure path. Google says communication between features and Private Compute Services happens over a set of purposeful open-source APIs, which removes identifying information from data and applies privacy technologies like Federated Learning, Federated Analytics, and Private information retrieval. If you want to learn more about this, you can check out our explainer of everything we know about the private compute core in the Google Pixel 6 series.


Under-the-hood changes in Android 12

The introduction of the Generic Kernel Image

Google has been working on reducing fragmentation on Android for years, though part of the cause of that is the inherent nature of Android. There are countless OEMs active in the space, and all of them want to make their own modifications for their own devices. The problem then is that it looks like Android OS updates are slow to roll out across the board, but there’s not a lot that Google can actually do to force OEMs to update their devices. As such, the next best thing that Google can do is make the update process as easy as possible.

In order to address this fragmentation, Google worked on the Android Generic Kernel Image (GKI). This is essentially a kernel compiled straight from an ACK branch. The GKI isolates SoC vendor and OEM customizations to plugin modules, eliminating out-of-tree code and allowing Google to push kernel updates directly to the end-user. For over a year, Google has been working on a way to deliver GKI updates via the Play Store, through the use of a Mainline module. Be sure to check out how the Generic Kernel Image is the next step towards solving Android’s fragmentation problem.

Phantom processes

Android 12 introduced a couple of restrictions on background processes; the first is that child processes of apps consuming too much CPU in the background will be killed if the parent process is also in the background. The second restriction introduced is a limit on the number of child processes that can be active at any given time. From the commit history, it would appear that Google was trying to clamp down on rogue background processes.

“Apps could use Runtime.exec() to spawn child process and framework will have no idea about its lifecycle. Now track those processes whenever we find them – currently during the cpu stats sampling they could be spotted. If it’s consuming too much CPU while its parent app process are also in the background, kill it. By default we allow up to 32 such processes; the process with the worst oom adj score of their parents will be killed if there are too many of them.”

Of course, Android smartphones are already notorious for background app killing. Pretty much all major OEMs engage in it in some way, shape, or form, and companies like OnePlus, Samsung, and Xiaomi are considered amongst the worst. While AOSP has some background app restrictions, it’s typical of manufacturers to build their own restrictions on top of AOSP. However, these are pretty strict limitations for power users and encourage behaviors that power users have been vocally against for a long time. Maybe it will increase battery life in the long run, but it’s a rather user-hostile approach.


Android 12 is my favorite iteration of Android yet

Android 12 is the most polished and most complete version of Android yet

When it comes to Android versions, Android 12 is the most polished and most complete version of Android yet, in my eyes. Aside from some of Material You’s woes, color theming is fantastic, and I really enjoy how the phone tunes itself to fit me. Nearly all of these changes, from privacy and security to under-the-hood improvements, are good for the end-user, and ultimately go a long, long way into maturing the Android platform.

Is there a point wherein it’s change for the sake of change? Maybe, but I’m not quite sure that we’ve reached that yet. Android 11 looked good, but it also looked very barebones. Visual clutter is bad, and I feel that Android 12 manages to achieve a new, updated look without adding any additional clutter. Having said that, I understand the arguments regarding wasted space — I just don’t really care enough about it. My phone still works, it looks prettier, and I think it’s a more palatable look to the average (read: not enthusiast) user.

A lot of these changes will need to be improved upon in Android 13. I don’t necessarily feel like I’m using a beta, but it feels like Google can do more. It feels like there’s more that needs to be done, and there’s more that will be done.

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Material You’s monet theme engine is the big highlight of Android 12, and here’s how it works https://www.xda-developers.com/material-you-monet-theme-engine/ https://www.xda-developers.com/material-you-monet-theme-engine/#respond Thu, 25 Nov 2021 15:15:16 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=560119 By far the biggest change in Android 12 is Material You, the latest version of Google’s Material design language. Material You, as Google describes, “seeks to create designs that are personal for every style, accessible for every need, alive and adaptive for every screen.” When developing Android 12, Google created a new theme engine code-named “monet”

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By far the biggest change in Android 12 is Material You, the latest version of Google’s Material design language. Material You, as Google describes, “seeks to create designs that are personal for every style, accessible for every need, alive and adaptive for every screen.” When developing Android 12, Google created a new theme engine code-named “monet” that generates a rich palette of pastel colors derived from the user’s wallpaper. These colors are then applied to various parts of the system and their values are made available through an API that the user’s applications can call, thus letting apps decide whether they also want to recolor their UI. Google has been going all-in on Material You, and the company has updated most of its apps to incorporate dynamic colors.

For a crash course on the history of Material Design, it first launched with Android 5 Lollipop, with an inherent focus on the user experience. As Google puts it, “Material is an adaptable system of guidelines, components, and tools that support the best practices of user interface design.” It featured flat, pastel color palettes, depth, soft lighting, and realistic physics. Android 9 Pie saw the advent of Material Design 2, though it was nowhere near as large a visual overhaul as the first Material Design iteration was. Android 12 saw the launch of Material Design 3, which is a more significant overhaul.

However, take away the color theming engine, and Material You isn’t actually that different. In fact, the personal element denoted by the “You” more or less entirely goes away.

How the monet theme engine works

The “monet” theme engine is where the magic happens when it comes to Material You, and it’s the algorithm that decides what colors are selected from a wallpaper. “Monet” isn’t fully open source yet, though it should be added to AOSP in Android 12L. Custom ROM developers, meanwhile, can implement this open-source implementation of “monet”. Third-party app developers are free to add support for dynamic colors right now, even if it’ll only work on Pixel phones running the latest release or custom ROMs.

The first question I’m sure most people have about Material You is how it manages to select colors that work together and contrast well together every single time. I’ve tried countless wallpapers with the intention of breaking the color-picking algorithm, but none of them have managed to do it. It still picks colors that work together every time, which is an impressive feat, to say the least. To get an insight into how Android 12’s color-picking algorithm works, one of the two easter eggs comes in the form of a widget that you can add to your desktop. The widget shows all of the colors selected by monet, and you can tap it to full-screen it. When it’s in full screen, you can then tap a color to share it. When you share it, the output looks like the following:

A1-600 (@android:color/system_accent1_600)
currently: #626200

When a user changes their wallpaper on an Android 12 device, the image is analyzed to select a color and algorithmically choose Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Error colors using an initial seed color. Two neutral colors are also chosen which give Material You its overall tint. At the same time, it is applying color theory and accessibility rules. From these colors, the algorithm creates tonal palettes ranging from 0% luminance (BLACK) to 100% (WHITE). Dynamic theming or custom theming uses values in these tonal palettes to set the theme attributes for that color range. It extracts up to 128 colors from the wallpaper to the CIELAB color space as an intermediary, then those colors are mapped to CAM16. The CAM16 color appearance model is used for sorting and filtering the colors to determine the actual seed color, and then palettes are generated using that seed color. Afterward, those colors are mapped back to RGB for setting colors throughout the system.

CIELAB is sometimes also referred to as “L*a*b*”. L* for perceived brightness/lightness, and a* and b* for the four unique colors of human vision — red, green, blue, and yellow. The lightness is used for calculating a contrast ratio, guaranteeing readability. Once applied, you get all of your pretty system-wide colors that can be implemented into the system UI, apps, and more.

What happened to Runtime Resource Overlays (RROs)?

RROs haven’t gone anywhere, and Material You works through the Fabricated Overlays API. In the past, we’ve talked about how Fabricated Overlays can be used to bring back rootless theming. Fabricated Overlays are a new addition to Android 12, and they work slightly differently from RROs. For one, RROs work through an overlay APK installed on a device, whereas a Fabricated Overlay simply tells an app what colors to use.

Fabricated Overlays are also a small bit more limited than RROs. Before Android 11, RROs could override pretty much any resource: booleans, integers, dimensions, attributes, layouts, and even raw data files. Android 11 made some changes to how RROs work, making overriding layouts not really feasible anymore.  Fabricated Overlays, on the other hand, can only override values that can be represented as integers. That includes integers, dimensions, booleans, and colors. You can’t use them to override raw data resources, layouts, strings, or arrays — at least not easily.

Still, these limitations don’t really matter when it comes to Material You and monet. Fabricated Overlays make it easy for the system to apply color and dimension overlays on the fly, without waiting for an APK to compile or the system to reboot to apply it.

Material You needs a lot of work

Material You’s dynamic colors are certainly not without their problems, and it’s not all that hard to break it fundamentally. If you change your wallpaper quickly, for instance, you can effectively institute a denial of service attack. Mishaal Rahman has confirmed that this denial of service attack will be fixed in Android 12L. I sincerely hope that Material You is improved upon in future versions, as while I love it and its concept, it needs a lot of work. From my own personal experience, I feel that its bugginess is partially why it hasn’t been added to AOSP… that, and the fact that Google probably wants to effectively make it a timed exclusive for the Pixel series.

Annoyingly, Android 12 removed custom font and custom icon choices in favor of Material You’s dynamic theming. The theming system was first introduced with the Pixel Themes app, and it was based on Android’s overlay-based theming framework. While Android 12’s Material You theming system is more customizable, it doesn’t feature the custom styles Google introduced in Android 10. In a comment on the Google Issue Tracker, a Googler gave the following reasoning for its removal:

“The custom style features (font, icon shape, icon pack, and accent color) in R are being replaced by the new dynamic theming feature that we are introducing in S. We see the new dynamic theming feature as more modern and intelligent. A simple and delightful experience that we hope all users can get to enjoy.”

It seems unlikely that Google will re-introduce fonts and custom icon choices in the future. Many users have voiced their disappointment in Google’s Material You changes, and given how broken it can be, I completely understand why. We’re hopeful that Google improves their implementation, or that other OEMs don’t fall into the same traps in their implementations that Google has.


Thanks to XDA Senior Member kdrag0n, developer of both ProtonAOSP and a recreation of the Material You theming system, for their assistance in this article!

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The Google Pixel 6 and Pixel 6 Pro have a new Private Compute Core, and here’s what we know about it https://www.xda-developers.com/private-compute-core/ https://www.xda-developers.com/private-compute-core/#respond Wed, 24 Nov 2021 13:55:42 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=559261 Android 12 brought with it a ton of new features, and one of the most mysterious is the addition of the Private Compute Core. It’s essentially a place where sensitive data can be processed on-device, away from where everything else is happening. It powers Google Pixel 6 exclusive features such as Now Playing, Live Caption,

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Android 12 brought with it a ton of new features, and one of the most mysterious is the addition of the Private Compute Core. It’s essentially a place where sensitive data can be processed on-device, away from where everything else is happening. It powers Google Pixel 6 exclusive features such as Now Playing, Live Caption, and Smart Reply, but there’s not a whole lot of information about how it works. And Google hasn’t been too forthcoming with information either.

Google says it will open-source the code for Private Compute Services so that independent security researchers can audit it. However, there’s no timeline on when the code will be publicly released. Private Compute Services is said to provide a privacy-preserving bridge between the Private Compute Core and the cloud, making it possible to deliver new AI models and other updates to sandboxed machine learning features over a secure path. Google says communication between features and Private Compute Services happens over a set of purposeful open-source APIs, which removes identifying information from data and applies privacy technologies like Federated Learning, Federated Analytics, and Private information retrieval.

Nobody really knows what the Private Compute Core is

But what exactly is the Privacy Compute Core? Our best-educated guess is that it either makes use of or will make use of an Android VM dubbed “microdroid“. Microdroid is a stripped-down version of the generic Android system image (GSI). The GSI is already a barebones build of open-source Android, but microdroid seems to be even more trimmed down. The goal of this project may be to allow for running a minimal version of Android on top of a hypervisor in order to allow for virtualizing an individual Android app rather than providing a full secondary desktop environment.

In order to manage these virtual machines, Google has been adapting the Chrome OS VMM (crosvm), which is used to run Linux apps on Chrome OS, for Android. This is reliant on the Generic Kernel Image, which launched in Android 12. Android 12 has a “development preview” of it according to Mishaal Rahman, and Android 13 is planned to include the first protected kernel-based virtual machine (pKVM) hypervisor release. The pKVM is designed to enable data confidentiality in a virtual machine, even when the OS is compromised.

Image

The above diagram comes from Google at I/O, and it seems that Android System Intelligence runs inside of the Android Private Compute Core, which in turn appears to be the virtual machine with reduced overheads. In essence, it’s a sandbox for features that might process sensitive information. Smart Reply obviously scans your messages, while Live Caption listens to whatever is being played. Now Playing also listens to audio around you.

For example, when typing in a conversation, Google explains that Gboard will ask Smart Reply to make suggestions based on the conversation on screen. Smart Reply then processes the conversation in the Private Compute Core, securely and confidentially. Sensitive data is not shared with the app, the keyboard, or Google, and all Gboard gets in response is a list of suggested replies.

Anything processed inside of the Compute Core can also only access the network through interacting with Private Compute Services. Private Compute Services strips out identifying information and uses privacy technologies including Federated Learning, Federated Analytics, and Private Information Retrieval. This abstracts the internet connection permission away from sensitive functions and will only work through “very narrow, purposeful APIs” to do things like “download models, use federated learning, and more.” Google has not released much more information about this and has not open-sourced anything relating to it yet.

Now Plying private compute core

But is the Private Compute Core active on Android smartphones in the way that Google has explained it will be? Nobody can really say. My gut feeling is that the “development preview” that exists is for very specific functionality that Google wanted to use it for and nothing more, as it’s advertised as being active even on the official Android 12 website. This would also make sense if it’s why it hasn’t been open-sourced yet, as it seems it may only work for a set of proprietary Google features. This is further supported by the fact that Now Playing can bypass the microphone indicator because it runs through the Compute Core. What we don’t really know is whether or not the Private Compute Core exists as a virtual machine in its current state.

Data stored and processed within this sandbox isn’t exposed to other apps unless intended by the user. For example, a Smart Reply suggestion will remain hidden from your keyboard and the app you’re typing into until you tap on it. Private Compute Services not only bridge the gap between the Private Compute Core and your smartphone but also keep those features updated with new AI-based models and changes.

Is the Private Compute Core a Pixel exclusive?

This is where things get really complicated.

The Private Compute Core has never been explicitly marketed as a Pixel exclusive feature. It’s on the official Android website, microdroid is a part of AOSP, and Google’s talks surrounding Android 12 have made reference to it in the context of Android 12 — not in the context of Pixels. So there’s a chance that Private Compute Core is an Android feature and not Pixel-exclusive — it just could be gated behind a timed exclusivity like how monet is.

Having said all of that, monet itself is technically a Pixel-exclusive in its current iteration, and the same can be said of that, too. The only difference is that Google said that monet would be pushed to AOSP in a future release of Android. Given that Google also likes to talk about the Private Compute Core in the context of Google-exclusive features like Now Playing and Live Caption, it’s entirely possible that this is something Google intends on keeping to itself.

From what I can tell, all of this seems to be in some kind of beta that Google is testing. It’s hard to tell if it’s actually active on a Pixel 6 device unless you really look for it, and even then, it’s hard to say for certain in what way it’s currently in use. After all, Google has said that it will open-source it, but it hasn’t yet. It’s always possible that OEMs will take inspiration and implement their own versions, particularly if they are also processing sensitive, private data on devices that then needs to be sent to the cloud.

The Private Compute Core has the potential to be great

To be honest, it’s hard to say how useful any of this will really be, but the potential sure is high. We would love for Google to make information more readily available in relation to the Private Compute Core and how it protects user privacy, as only that will truly help gauge how mature and useful the technology really is. The idea behind it is good and it can be a useful asset in protecting smartphone users, especially those who may use their devices for enterprise but are disturbed by more “invasive” features such as Now Playing and Smart Reply. We’ll be waiting to see the source code that Google releases in the future to learn more.

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Samsung Galaxy S20, Note 20 series get second One UI 4 beta with December 2021 security patches https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-galaxy-s20-note-20-android-12-one-ui-4-beta-2/ https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-galaxy-s20-note-20-android-12-one-ui-4-beta-2/#respond Tue, 23 Nov 2021 22:04:31 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=560379 It’s been a busy period for Samsung, as the Korean OEM is working hard to bring Android 12 with One UI 4 to its portfolio of Galaxy devices. Besides updating the current generation flagships, the company is also taking care of its legacy flagship offerings. Continuing the trend, Samsung has now started rolling out the

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It’s been a busy period for Samsung, as the Korean OEM is working hard to bring Android 12 with One UI 4 to its portfolio of Galaxy devices. Besides updating the current generation flagships, the company is also taking care of its legacy flagship offerings. Continuing the trend, Samsung has now started rolling out the second One UI 4 beta build to the Galaxy Note 20 and the Galaxy S20 family of smartphones.

XDA Forums: Samsung Galaxy S20/S20 Plus/S20 Ultra || Galaxy Note 20 || Galaxy Note 20 Ultra

According to multiple reports on our forums and Reddit, the second One UI 4 beta update has gone live for both the Exynos and Snapdragon variants of the aforementioned devices. The version number of the new build is ZUKA. In terms of changes, the update contains multiple fixes for the bugs reported by the beta participants. The Android security patch level (SPL) has also been bumped to December 2021.

Samsung Galaxy S20 One UI 4 beta ZUKA OTA

Screenshot credit: XDA Member maciejireland

The full update changelog for the second One UI 4 beta for the Samsung Galaxy S20/Note 20 is as follows:

  • Fixed errors that don’t work at adaptive refresh 120Hz
  • Fixed Quick share icon errors
  • Fixed errors that don’t work at Samsung’s Clear View Display Cover
  • Improved the operations of phone frame rate
  • Improved operations while searching in messages app

As with any update, getting your hands on it right away could prove to be tricky, especially if it’s a beta channel update. In case you have an eligible device and want to give the latest One UI 4 beta a shot, you can register for the beta program by heading over to the Samsung Members app and tapping on the One UI beta banner. On the following screen, tap on the enroll button and wait a few minutes for the app to process your enrollment. After that, head over to the software update section in your device settings and tap on check for updates to download the open beta release. Alternatively, visit our One UI 4 update tracker to grab the relevant OTA package for manual flashing.

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Samsung rolls out another One UI 4 stable update for the Galaxy S21 to address lag issues https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-galaxy-s21-one-ui-4-lag-fix-new-update/ https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-galaxy-s21-one-ui-4-lag-fix-new-update/#respond Tue, 23 Nov 2021 18:55:05 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=560263 It was just last week when Samsung started rolling out the first One UI 4 stable update for the Galaxy S21 series. The update bumped the devices to Android 12, introduced a plethora of new features, included Android security patches for November 2021, and even enabled eSIM support on the US carrier models. However, users

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It was just last week when Samsung started rolling out the first One UI 4 stable update for the Galaxy S21 series. The update bumped the devices to Android 12, introduced a plethora of new features, included Android security patches for November 2021, and even enabled eSIM support on the US carrier models. However, users who updated to this build reportedly faced some annoying lagging issues related to a buggy adaptive refresh rate implementation. Samsung is now rolling out another stable One UI 4 build for the Galaxy S21 lineup to address these bugs.

XDA Forums: Galaxy S21 || Galaxy S21 Plus || Galaxy S21 Ultra

According to a number of reports, the screen refresh rate in the original stable release of One UI 4 reverts from 120Hz to 60Hz as soon as the user’s finger stops touching the display. As a result of the anomaly, the UI elements, animations, and scrolling appear to be lagging. Interestingly, the bug mostly affects the Snapdragon 888-powered US variants of the Galaxy S21. After officially acknowledging the issue, Samsung has now come up with a hotfix update that replaces the previous release. The new build, which bumps the software version from G99xUSQU4BUK7 to G99xUSQU4BUK9 on the US carrier models, has started rolling out to users in an incremental fashion.

Samsung Galaxy S21 One UI 4 stable BUK9 OTA

Screenshot credit: Reddit user u/matthewreiter73

As of now, the new One UI 4 update is live on Verizon’s network. Other US carriers are expected to roll out the same in the coming days. Although the official changelog doesn’t specifically mention the 120Hz bug, the enhancement is rather noticeable, according to those who already installed the update. The scrolling lag on third-party apps is still not resolved properly, but the overall responsiveness of the phone seems to be improved a lot.

Apart from the US carrier models (U), the carrier unlocked (U1) Galaxy S21 units have also started receiving the stable One UI 4 update in the form of software version G99xU1UEU4BUK7. It could be possible that the aforementioned fix is already present in the unlocked variant’s update, but we have yet to spot its changelog to verify the hypothesis.

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Google’s Generic Kernel Image is the next step towards solving Android’s fragmentation problem https://www.xda-developers.com/google-generic-kernel-image/ https://www.xda-developers.com/google-generic-kernel-image/#respond Tue, 23 Nov 2021 14:07:28 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=558531 Google has been working on reducing fragmentation on Android for years, though part of the cause of that is the inherent nature of Android and the dual-edged sword of choice and freedom. There are countless OEMs active in the space, and all of them want to make their own modifications for their own devices. The

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Google has been working on reducing fragmentation on Android for years, though part of the cause of that is the inherent nature of Android and the dual-edged sword of choice and freedom. There are countless OEMs active in the space, and all of them want to make their own modifications for their own devices. The problem then is that it looks like Android OS updates are slow to roll out across the board, but there’s not a lot that Google can actually do to force OEMs to update their devices. As such, the next best thing that Google can do is make the update process as easy and frictionless as possible.

Easing the Android update pain

The first major initiative in Google’s long-term project to reduce the development burden was Project Treble. Announced alongside Android 8.0 Oreo in 2017, Project Treble modularized Android by separating the OS framework from the vendor implementation (HALs and the device-specific Linux kernel fork). This made it easier for Android OEMs to rebase their OSes on top of the latest AOSP framework, as they could boot the latest version without needing updated code from vendors. As a result, OEMs could ready their custom Android forks quicker than before, and by extension, roll out major OS updates more quickly.

The next step in Google’s plans was to streamline the delivery of updates to key Android components. Google called this initiative Project Mainline when it introduced it alongside Android 10 in 2019. Google essentially took control of key OS components and forbid OEMs from modifying them. They then set up a delivery mechanism via Google Play so they could remotely roll out updates to these key components without having to wait for OEMs to apply the patches themselves. Mainline greatly improved how quickly devices receive updated versions of important OS components, in turn improving the security of the Android ecosystem as a whole.

When it comes to Treble though, the Linux kernel realistically shouldn’t be lumped in with closed-source vendor code. Todd Kjos at this year’s Linux Plumbers Conference has explained in the past the difficulties that are faced when it comes to fragmentation on Android, and a lot of it now centers around the Linux kernel that OEMs ship with their devices. For context, Google forks each mainline Linux kernel into an “Android Common Kernel” (ACK) branch, which closely tracks the mainline release but adds a few Android-specific patches. SoC vendors like Qualcomm, MediaTek, and Samsung then fork that kernel for each SoC they make. OEMs then take that SoC-specific kernel and add additional patches to implement support for the specific hardware they want to ship.

Illustration showing how the Linux kernel gets to Android phones

The above diagram shows how a device’s kernel goes through several layers of change that abstract it far from the Linux LTS kernel. To simplify it, we start with the Linux Kernel, and it gets merged into the Android Common Kernel with a few changes. From there, the Android Common Kernel gets merged into a vendor kernel (Qualcomm, MediaTek, etc) with its own modifications and changes. Finally, the vendor kernel is merged into an OEM’s device-specific kernel. By this stage, any one device’s kernel is far removed from the Linux LTS kernel that it started with.

As a result of all of those forks, as much as 50% of the code running on an Android device is out-of-tree code, which means that it’s not from upstream Linux or AOSP common kernels. This makes it incredibly difficult (not to mention time-consuming and costly) to merge upstream changes. For OEMs, there’s no incentive to do so, but that practice can be harmful to device security. This is also why a lot of Android devices are left on older LTS kernel releases, which has the side effect of devices losing out on access to new Linux kernel features.

Android is fragmented, and Google knows it

Google knows full well that this is a problem, and even has a section called “The costs of fragmentation” in the Android developer documentation. Google says that “most flagship devices ship with a kernel version that’s already at least 18 months old”. Even worse, Google also says that “Android 10 supports 3.18, 4.4, 4.9, 4.14, and 4.19 kernels, which in some cases haven’t been enhanced with new features since Android 8 in 2017.” This makes it difficult to add features that require new Linux kernel versions. Linux kernel 3.18 was launched in December 2014, back when Android 5.0 Lollipop was the latest version of Android. That’s clearly a problem and can hold the platform back.

For example, Code Aurora Forum, or CAF for short, hosts the source code for various Qualcomm Snapdragon SoCs. Qualcomm, as an SoC vendor, distributes a forked version of the Linux kernel to OEMs/ODMs, and those companies then add device-specific changes on shipping devices. This is what adds several layers of fragmentation. In addition, Qualcomm makes changes to the AOSP framework to optimize Android for each of the company’s Snapdragon mobile platforms. Qualcomm privately distributes its modified Linux kernel, AOSP framework, and other software tools to its partners as part of a Board Support Package, or BSP. CAF is where Qualcomm publically publishes these Linux kernel changes and AOSP framework changes.

This CAF release can be useful for custom ROM developers who wish to use it as a starting point rather than pure AOSP, which is why you sometimes see “CAF-based” ROMs on our forums. Remember the Snapdragon 625 that seemed to power so many mid-range smartphones for years? That launched with Linux Kernel 3.18, and only towards the end of 2018 (two years after the chipset launched) did Qualcomm update the kernel sources and publish them on CAF for msm8953 (the chipset name of the Snapdragon 625) bringing support for Linux Kernel 4.9. The problem is that most OEMs won’t update phones to this new Linux kernel version, especially not mid-range phones two years after the chip was released. Admittedly, it’s very rare for a major kernel update like that to even happen in the first place, but the point is that it has happened, so it’s not just an impossible scenario.

All in all, the current fragmentation in Android is a mess, to put it lightly. Google’s latest attempts to fix that fragmentation come in the form of the Generic Kernel Image, or the GKI.

Introducing the Generic Kernel Image

In order to address this fragmentation, Google worked on the Android Generic Kernel Image (GKI). This is essentially a kernel compiled straight from an ACK branch. The GKI isolates SoC vendor and OEM customizations to plugin modules, eliminating out-of-tree code and allowing Google to push kernel updates directly to the end-user. For over a year, Google has been working on a way to deliver GKI updates via the Play Store, through the use of a Mainline module.

As a result, devices that launch with Android 12 that run Linux kernel 5.10.43 or higher must do one of the following, according to Mishaal Rahman.

  • Deploy a Google-signed boot image

OR

  • Deploy a boot image with a kernel that exports a KMI (Kernel Module Interface) that’s a subset of the KMI exported by the GKI, exports a userspace API that is a superset of the UAPI exposed by the GKI, and support all features of the corresponding GKI version

Vendors can create modules that plug into the GKI, but the idea of the GKI is that Google takes on the burden of responsibility for handling kernel changes. The Kernel Module Interface (or KMI, more on this in the later parts of the article) is effectively where out-of-tree code is expected to go.

The Google Pixel 6 series launched with Android 12 out of the box and ships with Linux kernel 5.10, and it’s the first phone to ship with a GKI. Because Google could potentially update the kernel through the Play Store, we might even see frequent kernel updates, as LTS kernel updates are typically released weekly. Either way, it’s a much better system than the currently-cumbersome method of updating via OTA, though this does mean it is inherently tied to the GMS framework.

Google simply defines the GKI as the following:

  • It’s built from the ACK sources.
  • It’s a single-kernel binary plus associated loadable modules per architecture, per LTS release (currently only arm64 for android11-5.4 and android12-5.4).
  • It’s tested with all Android Platform releases that are supported for the associated ACK. There’s no feature deprecation for the lifetime of a GKI kernel version
  • It exposes a stable KMI to drivers within a given LTS.
  • It does not contain SoC or board-specific code.

Google even wants to be in a position by 2023 wherein it can take an “upstream first” development model. This will help Google ensure new code lands first in the mainline Linux kernel, reducing “technical debt” accrued out-of-tree code on Android devices.

Google's timeline to address Android kernel fragmentation

The Kernel Module Interface (KMI)

The Kernel Module Interface, or KMI, is part of Google’s solution to the ongoing fragmentation in Android. In essence, SoC and board support are no longer located in the core kernel and are instead moved into loadable modules. Both the kernel and modules can be updated independently then, as modules are updated in /lib/modules. The GKI itself is supposed to be as clean and generic as possible, which is made possible by offloading what is now out-of-tree code into separate modules.

As Ted Kjos explained at this year’s Linux Plumbers Conference, “the big multi-year push is to get all of the hardware-specific code out of the generic kernel and into vendor modules. We have to have a stable interface between those vendor modules and the generic kernel so that they can ship asynchronously.” GKI 1.0 is essentially a “compliance test”.

In fact, GKI compatibility means that the device passes the VTS and CTS-on-GSI+GKI tests with the Generic System Image (GSI) and the GKI kernel installed by flashing the GKI boot image into the boot partition and GSI system image in the system partition. The Vendor Test Suite, or VTS, is an automated test that all devices must pass to be considered compatible with Project Treble. The Compatibility Test Suite, or CTS, is required in order to access Google’s suite of applications.

Devices can ship with a different product kernel and can use loadable modules that GKI doesn’t provide. However, both the product and GKI kernels must load modules from the same vendor_boot and vendor partitions. Therefore, all product kernels are required to have the same binary kernel module interface (KMI).

New GKI apprach to isolate vendor modules reduce fragmentation

The above diagram shows what Google wants to do, and explains how it intends on reaching that. The Generic Kernel and GKI modules will be a part of AOSP, and the GKI can communicate with the Android framework and the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) that a vendor may implement. The specific proprietary code that a vendor wants in the kernel (for example, camera drivers) will instead be pushed into a vendor module that becomes an extension of the GKI via the KMI.

How the GKI can help solve Android’s fragmentation problem

Google has been putting a lot of work into streamlining the development process of smartphones. Every OEM wants its own brand identity, and every OEM wants to be able to have ownership of its devices. Unlike the Android One program, Android smartphones can pretty much be whatever they want, so long as they adhere to the set of rules that Google sets out in order to receive a GMS license. However, in the past, Google hasn’t done a whole lot to reign in Android device development, with changes such as Project Treble, Mainline, and now the GKI being a lot more recent in Android’s history.

But will it help? It should do, though it’s likely to be a multi-year affair that bears visible fruit later down the line. This will only apply to devices that launch with Android 12, meaning that we’re going to see devices that don’t have a GKI for years to come. That was also a criticism of Project Treble when that was announced, though obviously all devices launched nowadays support it. These things take time, and as Google slowly draws the reigns on Android, the development process is eased for all of the OEMs in the Android ecosystem, even if some of them would rather retain full control over the Linux kernel that’s used on Android smartphones.

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Latest One UI 4 beta for the Galaxy Z Fold 3 and Z Flip 3 brings December 2021 security patches https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-galaxy-z-fold-3-flip-3-android-12-one-ui-4-beta-3/ https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-galaxy-z-fold-3-flip-3-android-12-one-ui-4-beta-3/#respond Mon, 22 Nov 2021 22:04:08 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=559425 We’re still a few days away from moving into the next month, but that’s not stopping Samsung from releasing December 2021 security patches. This time, the Korean OEM bundled the new set of monthly security patches with a fresh One UI 4 beta build based on Android 12 for its latest foldable duo. The Galaxy

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We’re still a few days away from moving into the next month, but that’s not stopping Samsung from releasing December 2021 security patches. This time, the Korean OEM bundled the new set of monthly security patches with a fresh One UI 4 beta build based on Android 12 for its latest foldable duo. The Galaxy Z Fold 3 and the Galaxy Z Flip 3 are now receiving their third One UI 4 beta build in multiple regions.

Samsung Galaxy Flip 3 XDA Forums || Samsung Galaxy Fold 3 XDA Forums

According to reports on our forums, Samsung has begun seeding a new software update to the beta participants in the form of firmware version ZUKG. Apart from bumping the Android security patch level, the build doesn’t bring anything new in terms of features. However, the changelog mentions several important bug fixes, which suggests that the final release of One UI 4.0 for the Galaxy Z Flip 3 and the Galaxy Z Fold 3 is almost ready to roll out in the coming weeks.

Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3 One UI 4 beta ZUKG

Screenshot credit: XDA Senior Member Calvofernan

So far, the beta update has gone live in South Korea and India. We expect Samsung to expand the rollout to the U.S. next. As we have seen with previous rollouts, the new security update should also be making its way to the stable channel of One UI very soon.

If you wish to try out the One UI 4.0 beta for yourself, you can participate in the beta rollout from within the Samsung Members app. Do note that participation in the program requires a Samsung account, which you can create by heading over to this website. In case your region is not supported by the beta initiative, you can still try out the latest firmware release from Samsung by manual flashing. To do so, take a look at our dedicated One UI 4.0 update tracker.

Samsung Members (Free, Google Play) →

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At a Glance widget on the Pixel 6 is about to get even better https://www.xda-developers.com/at-a-glance-widget-pixel-6-new-features-in-works/ https://www.xda-developers.com/at-a-glance-widget-pixel-6-new-features-in-works/#respond Mon, 22 Nov 2021 14:30:51 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=559223 Google’s Pixel 6 series debuts several new exclusive software features, and one of them is a revamped “At a Glance” widget. The updated widget is much powerful than the previous version and can show events from your calendar, your boarding pass on the day of your flight, your workout stats, and so on. And it’s

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Google’s Pixel 6 series debuts several new exclusive software features, and one of them is a revamped “At a Glance” widget. The updated widget is much powerful than the previous version and can show events from your calendar, your boarding pass on the day of your flight, your workout stats, and so on. And it’s about to get even better.

9to5Google has uncovered new strings within the Android System Intelligence app (previously known as Device Personalization Services), which suggests that Google is planning to add several new At Glance capabilities on the Pixel 6 series.

Currently, the At a Glance widget on the Google Pixel 6 lets you see traffic and ETA, calendar events, severe weather alerts, flight info, and so on. But soon, it will also be able to display shopping lists when you’re in a supported store, bedtime and doorbell alerts, battery info of your Bluetooth devices, timer and stopwatch info, and more.

Google is working on adding the following capabilities to the “At a Glance” widget:

  • At a store: Shopping lists and Google Pay rewards cards when you’re in supported stores
  • Bedtime: Your upcoming bedtime from the Clock app
  • Connected devices: Connection status and battery info for your Bluetooth devices
  • Doorbell: Show who’s at the door when your doorbell rings
  • Fitness: Activity info from your fitness app
  • Flashlight: Reminder when the flashlight is on
  • Safety check: Safety check countdown from the Personal Safety app
  • Timer & stopwatch: Timer and stopwatch info from the Clock app

Note that these capabilities aren’t live yet. It’s unclear when Google plans to make them available to users. The new At a Glance widget is currently exclusive to the Pixel 6 and Pixel 6 Pro, so it’s likely that these new capabilities will be limited to these phones, at least initially. We’ll update this post with more info once these features become widely available.

 

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Here’s how you can customize Android 12’s monet colors without root https://www.xda-developers.com/how-to-customize-android-12-monet-colors-no-root/ https://www.xda-developers.com/how-to-customize-android-12-monet-colors-no-root/#respond Mon, 22 Nov 2021 13:25:18 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=559135 Material You’s wallpaper-based theming system launched with Android 12. The theming system creates color palettes based on the dominant color scheme of your wallpaper and applies them to Quick Settings tiles, lockscreen, Settings, pop-ups, and apps.  The theming engine itself is code-named “monet.” Google actually manages to do a pretty decent job at assessing your

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Material You’s wallpaper-based theming system launched with Android 12. The theming system creates color palettes based on the dominant color scheme of your wallpaper and applies them to Quick Settings tiles, lockscreen, Settings, pop-ups, and apps.  The theming engine itself is code-named “monet.” Google actually manages to do a pretty decent job at assessing your wallpaper and picking dominant and accent colors for its palette. But if you don’t like the colors that Google takes from your favorite wallpaper for theming your phone, though, it’s possible to customize Android 12’s monet colors without root, thanks to the LWP+ app on the Google Play Store.

Customize Android 12’s monet colors without root

LWP+ - customized Monet colors (Free, Google Play) →

  • Tap “wallpaper type”, select your preference (I use “cropped image”)
  • Crop your image to your liking
  • Scroll down to “Custom colors”
  • Enable “use custom colors” and choose your primary, secondary, and tertiary colors
  • Scroll back up, and tap “set as current live wallpaper”
  • Go to your home screen

The LWP+ app (developed by XDA Senior Member AndroidDeveloperLB) was developed for Android 8.1 Oreo initially and it could be used to force system-wide dark mode. Since then, users have rediscovered that it works with Android 12’s Material You, and I tested it out on my Google Pixel 6 Pro.

Launcher default monet colors Customize colors in LWP+ Customize colors in LWP+ New colors in launcher with monet Color themed quick settings Material You monet color palette

You can see from the above screenshots that the color accent on my launcher is different the first time than the second time, while still maintaining the same wallpaper. LWP+ works by setting a live wallpaper that hosts a static or animated image within it, and it then provides a primary, secondary, and tertiary color to the system. Every time you change your colors, you’ll need to tap “set as current live wallpaper” again, but they’ll persist as long as you leave LWP+ as your wallpaper.

Google’s monet theming engine has been rife with issues, and many would have wished for this functionality to be built into the system. Sometimes I want to use a particular wallpaper, but Material You might choose colors from it that I don’t want across my entire phone. This is an easy way to get around that problem and can make your phone even more personal to you.

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Android 12 Custom ROM List: Unofficially update your Android smartphone! https://www.xda-developers.com/android-12-custom-rom/ https://www.xda-developers.com/android-12-custom-rom/#respond Fri, 19 Nov 2021 15:05:39 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=532613 Ever since Google announced the arrival of Android 12‘s stable release and dropped the source code to AOSP, the tinkering party is underway here at XDA. But unless you own a current-generation device like the OnePlus 9/9 Pro or the Samsung Galaxy S21, there’s a very good chance that you will have to wait for

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Ever since Google announced the arrival of Android 12‘s stable release and dropped the source code to AOSP, the tinkering party is underway here at XDA. But unless you own a current-generation device like the OnePlus 9/9 Pro or the Samsung Galaxy S21, there’s a very good chance that you will have to wait for a few months to have your OEM send across the latest dessert onto your phone.

But of course, this is XDA, home to the largest community collection of custom ROMs and many other aftermarket developments. While OEMs are restricted by several factors which limit their ability to provide a timely update, our community members can do a fantastic job at giving other enthusiasts a chance to try out the latest Android release on their phones, right now! Granted, the early works from developers working with inadequate (and often non-existent) official resources can’t possibly give us bug-free ROMs. But they do highlight how groups of like-minded individuals can achieve something great when they all put their minds to it.

With the large number of unofficial builds of Android 12-based custom ROMs popping up, we felt it would be a good idea to create an index of devices that have Android 12 ports available for them. Do note that these are unofficial builds and will very likely contain bugs. Please read the first few posts of each linked thread so you know the current status of the build before flashing it on your phone.

Note: In this article, we will only be providing a link to the first Android 12 custom ROM that we come across for a particular device. This does not serve as an endorsement of that particular build, nor are we suggesting that the work of others should be ignored. We are limiting what we link to in order to prevent this article from becoming too lengthy. Please visit the XDA forums for your device to see if there are other, possibly more complete, builds available.



List of devices with Android 12 Custom ROMs:

This is the current list of devices that have received an Android 12 custom ROM:

  1. ASUS
    1. ASUS ZenFone 5Z
    2. ASUS ZenFone 8
    3. ASUS ZenFone Max Pro M1
  2. Essential
    1. Essential Phone
  3. Google
    1. Google Pixel 2 XL
  4. Lenovo
    1. Lenovo Z6 Pro
  5. LG
    1. LG G8 ThinQ
  6. Motorola
    1. Moto G 2015 and Moto G3 Turbo
    2. Moto G5S
    3. Moto G9 Plus
    4. Moto Z3 Play
  7. Nokia
    1. Nokia 6.1
    2. Nokia 6.1 Plus
    3. Nokia 7 Plus
    4. Nokia 7.1
    5. Nokia 8
    6. Nokia 8.1
  8. OnePlus
    1. OnePlus 5 and OnePlus 5T
    2. OnePlus 6 and OnePlus 6T
    3. OnePlus 7 and OnePlus 7 Pro
    4. OnePlus 7T and OnePlus 7T Pro
    5. OnePlus 8T and OnePlus 9R
    6. OnePlus Nord
  9. Raspberry Pi
    1. Raspberry Pi 4 B, Pi 400, and Compute Module 4
  10. Realme
    1. Realme 2 Pro
    2. Realme 5 Pro
    3. Realme 6/6i [India]/6s
    4. Realme 6 Pro
    5. Realme C3
    6. Realme X2 Pro
    7. Realme XT
  11. Samsung
    1. Samsung Galaxy A10
    2. Samsung Galaxy A20 and A20e
    3. Samsung Galaxy A21s
    4. Samsung Galaxy A30
    5. Samsung Galaxy A40
    6. Samsung Galaxy Note 10, Galaxy Note 10 Plus, and Galaxy Note 10 Plus 5G
    7. Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1
    8. Samsung Galaxy S10eGalaxy S10, and Galaxy S10 Plus
    9. Samsung Galaxy Tab S6 Lite
  12. Sony
    1. Sony Xperia 5
    2. Sony Xperia 10 II
    3. Sony Xperia XZ Premium
  13. Xiaomi
    1. Mi 5
    2. Mi 8 SE
    3. Mi 9
    4. Mi 10T/Mi 10T Pro/Redmi K30S
    5. Mi 10T Lite/Mi 10i/Redmi Note 9 Pro 5G
    6. Mi 11 Lite 4G
    7. Mi A1
    8. Mi A2
    9. Mi A2 Lite
    10. Mi Mix 3
    11. Mi Note 10 Lite
    12. Mi Pad 4 and Mi Pad 4 Plus
    13. POCO F1
    14. POCO F2 Pro/Redmi K30 Pro
    15. POCO F3/Mi 11X/Redmi K40
    16. POCO X2/Redmi K30
    17. POCO X3
    18. POCO X3 Pro
    19. Redmi 5
    20. Redmi 5 Plus/Redmi Note 5
    21. Redmi 7
    22. Redmi K20/Mi 9T
    23. Redmi K20 Pro/Mi 9T Pro
    24. Redmi K30 5G
    25. Redmi Note 5/Redmi Note 5 Pro
    26. Redmi Note 6 Pro
    27. Redmi Note 7/7S
    28. Redmi Note 7 Pro
    29. Redmi Note 8 and Redmi Note 8T
    30. Redmi Note 9S/9 Pro India/10 Lite India, Redmi Note 9 Pro, Redmi Note 9 Pro Max, and POCO M2 Pro
    31. Redmi Note 9T/Redmi Note 9 5G
    32. Redmi Note 10
    33. Redmi Note 10 Pro and Redmi Note 10 Pro Max
    34. Redmi S2/Y2


1. ASUS

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. ASUS ZenFone 5Z (Z01R) DerpFest 12 November 19, 2021
1. ASUS ZenFone 8 (sake/I006D) StatiXOS 5.0 November 10, 2021
2. ASUS ZenFone Max Pro M1 (X00TD) ArrowOS 12.0 October 16, 2021

1.1. ASUS ZenFone 5Z

Launched back in 2018, the Snapdragon 845-powered ZenFone 5Z can now run Android 12, thanks to the DerpFest 12 custom ROM build linked below.

DerpFest 12 based on Android 12 for the ASUS ZenFone 5Z

1.2. ASUS ZenFone 8

ASUS has yet to publish the stable Android 12 update for the ZenFone 8, but an official preview build of StatiXOS 5.0 based on Android 12 is already available for this device on our forums. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

StatiXOS 5.0 based on Android 12 for the ASUS ZenFone 8

1.3. ASUS ZenFone Max Pro M1

If you have the ASUS ZenFone Max Pro M1 and want to try out Android 12 on your phone, then go right ahead and check out the beta release of official ArrowOS 12.0 build linked below. Note that the ROM ships with a source-built 4.19 kernel.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the ASUS ZenFone Max Pro M1


2. Essential

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. Essential Phone (mata) StatiXOS 5.0 November 19, 2021

2.1. Essential Phone

Android 12 on the Essential Phone is available in the form of StatiXOS 5.0. There are a few minor bugs that you would need to deal with, but apart from that, the ROM appears to be in pretty good shape.

StatiXOS 5.0 based on Android 12 for the Essential Phone


3. Google

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. Google Pixel 2 XL (taimen) ProtonAOSP 12.0.0 November 10, 2021

3.1. Google Pixel 2 XL

The second-gen Google Pixels, which were released all the way back in 2017, received the official Android 11 update last year. While they aren’t officially eligible to get the Android 12 update from Google, you can now try out the latest version of Android on the Pixel 2 XL, thanks to an unofficial build of the ProtonAOSP 12.0.0 custom ROM.

ProtonAOSP 12.0.0 based on Android 12 for the Google Pixel 2 XL


4. Lenovo

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. Lenovo Z6 Pro (zippo) POSP 5.0 October 16, 2021

4.1. Lenovo Z6 Pro

The Qualcomm Snapdragon 855-powered Lenovo Z6 Pro can now run Android 12, thanks to an experimental build of Potato Open Sauce Project (POSP) custom ROM. To know more, take a look at the forum thread below.

POSP 5.0 based on Android 12 for the Lenovo Z6 Pro


5. LG

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. LG G8 ThinQ (alpha) ArrowOS 12.0 November 19, 2021

5.1. LG G8 ThinQ

For those of you eagerly waiting for an Android 12-based custom ROM for your LG G8 ThinQ, you can now try out an unofficial build of ArrowOS 12.0. Keep in mind that the ROM is compatible with both the US (codename “alphalm”) and the Korean (codename: “alphaplus”) models.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the LG G8 ThinQ


6. Motorola

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. Moto G 2015 (osprey)
Moto G3 Turbo (merlin)
LineageOS 19.0 November 19, 2021
1. Moto G5S (montana) AOSP 12.0 October 23, 2021
2. Moto G9 Plus (odessa) ArrowOS 12.0 October 16, 2021
3. Moto Z3 Play (beckham) Pixel Experience 12 November 10, 2021

6.1. Moto G 2015 and Moto G3 Turbo

The third generation Moto G, AKA Moto G 2015 and its “Turbo” variant have received an unofficial port of LineageOS 19.0 on top of Android 12. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Moto G 2015 and Moto G3 Turbo

6.2. Moto G5S

If you have a Moto G5S and want to try out Android 12 on your phone, then go right ahead and check out the vanilla AOSP 12.0 ROM linked below.

AOSP 12.0 for the Moto G5S

6.3. Moto G9 Plus

An unofficial build of ArrowOS on top of Android 12 is also available for the Moto G9 Plus. This ROM has some issues with Bluetooth and TWRP, but if you can overlook those, you can have your first taste of the latest Android version.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Moto G9 Plus

6.4. Moto Z3 Play

Owners of the Moto Z3 Play can now taste Android 12, courtesy of an unofficial build of Pixel Experience 12. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread below.

Pixel Experience 12 based on Android 12 for the Moto Z3 Play


7. Nokia

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. Nokia 6.1 (plate2_sprout) AospExtended 9.0 October 16, 2021
2. Nokia 6.1 Plus (dragon_sprout) AospExtended 9.0 October 16, 2021
3. Nokia 7 Plus (b2n_sprout) AospExtended 9.0 October 16, 2021
4. Nokia 7.1 (crystal_sprout) AospExtended 9.0 October 16, 2021
5. Nokia 8 (NB1) ArrowOS 12.0 October 23, 2021
6. Nokia 8.1 (phoenix_sprout) OctaviOS 3.0 October 29, 2021

7.1. Nokia 6.1

An unofficial build of AospExtended 9.0 on top of Android 12 is now available for the Nokia 6.1. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

AospExtended 9.0 based on Android 12 for the Nokia 6.1

7.2. Nokia 6.1 Plus

If you have a Nokia 6.1 Plus and want to try out Android 12 on your phone, then go right ahead and check out the unofficial AospExtended 9.0 custom ROM linked below.

AospExtended 9.0 based on Android 12 for the Nokia 6.1 Plus

7.3. Nokia 7 Plus

For those of you eagerly awaiting Android 12-based custom ROMs for your Nokia 7 Plus, we have some good news for you: an unofficial build of AospExtended is now available for this device. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread below.

AospExtended 9.0 based on Android 12 for the Nokia 7 Plus

7.4. Nokia 7.1

The Nokia 7.1 has received a port of Android 12 through an unofficial build of AospExtended custom ROM. The ROM appears to be in good shape, with all basic hardware features working.

AospExtended 9.0 based on Android 12 for the Nokia 7.1

7.5. Nokia 8

Launched back in 2017, the Snapdragon 835-powered Nokia 8 can now run Android 12, thanks to an unofficial build of ArrowOS 12.0 custom ROM.

ArrowOS 9.0 based on Android 12 for the Nokia 8

7.6. Nokia 8.1

Nokia 8.1 users can now taste Android 12, courtesy of an unofficial build of OctaviOS 3.0. This ROM requires the latest stock modem and bootloader, so make sure to download and flash the them beforehand.

OctaviOS 3.0 based on Android 12 for the Nokia 8.1


8. OnePlus

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. OnePlus 5 (cheeseburger)
OnePlus 5T (dumpling)
AOSP 12.0
Pixel Experience 12
October 8, 2021
October 29, 2021
2. OnePlus 6 (enchilada)
OnePlus 6T (fajita)
Syberia OS 5.0
ArrowOS 12.0
November 10, 2021
3. OnePlus 7 (guacamoleb)
OnePlus 7 Pro (guacamole)
OnePlus 7T (hotdogb)
OnePlus 7T Pro (hotdog)
KOSP 2.x: 7 || 7 Pro || 7T || 7T Pro November 10, 2021
4. OnePlus 8T (kebab)
OnePlus 9R (lemonades)
AospExtended 9.0 October 29, 2021
5. OnePlus Nord (avicii) Pixel Experience 12 October 29, 2021

8.1. OnePlus 5 and OnePlus 5T

For those of you eagerly awaiting Android 12-based custom ROMs for your OnePlus 5, we have some good news for you: a vanilla AOSP 12 ROM is now available for this device. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread below.

AOSP 12.0 for the OnePlus 5

A unified beta build of Pixel Experience 12 is also available for the phone duo. The second SIM-Slot does not work for mobile data, though, and VoLTE may not work in this ROM.

Pixel Experience 12 based on Android 12 for the OnePlus 5/5T

8.2. OnePlus 6 and OnePlus 6T

Android 12 has landed on the OnePlus 6 through the Syberia OS custom ROM. Before installing this ROM, make sure to flash the latest OxygenOS 11 firmware.

Syberia OS 5.0 based on Android 12 for the OnePlus 6

On the other hand, an unofficial build of the ArrowOS 12.0 custom ROM brings Android 12 to the OnePlus 6T.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the OnePlus 6T

8.3. OnePlus 7, 7 Pro, 7T, and OnePlus 7T Pro

The OnePlus 7 and 7T family of devices get a taste of Android 12, thanks to the KOSP custom ROM. Take a look at the device-specific thread below and follow the instructions to install the ROM.

KOSP 2.x: 7 || 7 Pro || 7T || 7T Pro

8.4. OnePlus 8T and OnePlus 9R

Although the OnePlus 8T and the OnePlus 9R don’t share a common firmware, both of them can now run Android 12, thanks to an unofficial unified build of AospExtended 9.0.

AospExtended 9.0 based on Android 12 for the OnePlus 8T/9T

8.5. OnePlus Nord

OnePlus has yet to publish a Android 12 beta build for the mid-ranger OnePlus Nord, but an alpha release of Pixel Experience 12 ROM for this phone is already available on our forums.

Pixel Experience 12 based on Android 12 for the OnePlus Nord


9. Raspberry

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. Raspberry Pi 4 B, Pi 400, and Compute Module 4 LineageOS 19.0 November 19, 2021

9.1. Raspberry Pi 4 B, Pi 400, and Compute Module 4

Although not natively supported by Android, the Raspberry Pi 4 family of devices can now boot Android 12, thanks to the unofficial LineageOS 19.0 build linked below.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Raspberry Pi 4 B, Pi 400, and Compute Module 4


10. Realme

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. Realme 2 Pro (RMX1801) Project Elixir 1.0 November 19, 2021
2. Realme 5 Pro (RMX1971) Cherish OS 3.0 November 10, 2021
3. Realme 6/6i [India]/6s (RMX2001/RMX2002) Palladium OS 2.0 October 29, 2021
4. Realme 6 Pro (RMX2061) ArrowOS 12.0 October 23, 2021
5. Realme C3 (RMX2020) Pixel Experience 12 October 23, 2021
6. Realme X2 Pro (RMX1931) LineageOS 19.0 November 19, 2021
7. Realme XT (RMX1921) Project Elixir 1.0 November 10, 2021

10.1. Realme 2 Pro

Thanks to an official build of the Project Elixir custom ROM, the Realme 2 Pro’s userbase can now experience Android 12.

Project Elixir 1.0 based on Android 12 for the Realme 2 Pro

10.2. Realme 5 Pro

The Realme 5 Pro can now run Android 12, courtesy of a AOSP-based custom ROM known as Cherish OS 3.0.

Cherish OS 3.0 based on Android 12 for the Realme 5 Pro

10.3. Realme 6/6i [India]/6s

The Realme 6 gets a taste of Android 12 through the Palladium OS 2.0 custom ROM. The build is also compatible with the Realme 6s and the Indian edition of the Realme 6i. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

Palladium OS 2.0 based on Android 12 for the Realme 6/6i [India]/6s

10.4. Realme 6 Pro

An unofficial build of ArrowOS 12.0 brings the vanilla Android 12 experience to the Realme 6 Pro. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Realme 6 Pro

10.5. Realme C3

Android 12 comes to the Realme C3 in the form of an unofficial build of Pixel Experience 12 custom ROM. Since this is an early unofficial build, do intimate yourself of the bugs before flashing.

Pixel Experience 12 based on Android 12 for the Realme C3

10.6. Realme X2 Pro

The first true flagship device from Realme — the Realme X2 Pro — has now received a taste of Android 12 through an unofficial build of LineageOS 19.0. The custom ROM offers a near-stock Android experience with a handful of device-specific customization options.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Realme X2 Pro

10.7. Realme XT

If you’re looking for an AOSP 12-based ROM instead of the Realme UI on your Realme XT, you can opt for the Project Elixir custom ROM linked below.

Project Elixir 1.0 based on Android 12 for the Realme XT


11. Samsung

11.1. Samsung Galaxy A10

The Exynos 7884-powered Samsung Galaxy A10 has received an unofficial build of OctaviOS 3.0 custom ROM based on Android 12. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

OctaviOS 3.0 based on Android 12 for the Samsung Galaxy A10

11.2. Samsung Galaxy A20/A20e

If you’re looking for a vanilla Android 12 ROM to replace the One UI firmware on your Galaxy A20, you can opt for the unofficial OctaviOS 3.0 build linked below. The ROM is also compatible with the Galaxy A20e.

OctaviOS 3.0 based on Android 12 for the Samsung Galaxy A20/A20e

11.3. Samsung Galaxy A21s

The Galaxy A21s can now have a taste of Android 12, thanks to an experimental AOSP 12.0 build. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread below.

AOSP 12.0 for the Samsung Galaxy A21s

11.4. Samsung Galaxy A30

Android 12 for the Galaxy A30 is available in the form of an unofficial OctaviOS 3.0 build. Check out the ROM thread below and read the instructions carefully before flashing.

OctaviOS 3.0 based on Android 12 for the Samsung Galaxy A30

11.5. Samsung Galaxy A40

An unofficial build of OctaviOS 3.0 custom ROM has brought Android 12 to the Galaxy A40. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

OctaviOS 3.0 based on Android 12 for the Samsung Galaxy A40

11.6. Samsung Galaxy Note 10, Note 10 Plus, and Note 10 Plus 5G

Samsung has yet to start the One UI 4.0 beta testing for the Galaxy Note 10 series, but you can already try out Android 12 through an unofficial LineageOS 19.0 release for the Exynos variants of these devices.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Samsung Galaxy Note 10/Note 10 Plus/Note 10 Plus 5G

11.7. Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1

Android 12 for the Galaxy Note 10.1 is available in the form of an unofficial LineageOS 19.0 ROM. You can find separate builds for the n8000 (GT-N8000, GT-N8005), n8010 (GT-N8010, GT-N8013), and n8020 (GT-N8020) variants in the thread linked below.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1

11.8. Samsung Galaxy S10e, S10, and S10 Plus

For those of you eagerly awaiting Android 12-based custom ROMs for your Galaxy S10, we have some good news for you: an unofficial build of LineageOS 19.0 is now available for the Exynos variants. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread below.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Samsung Galaxy S10e/S10/S10 Plus

11.9. Samsung Galaxy Tab S6 Lite

Both the Wi-Fi only and LTE variants of the Samsung Galaxy Tab S6 Lite can now run Android 12, thanks to an unofficial build of LineageOS 19.0. Keep in mind that you need to be on a stock One UI 3.x/Android 11 firmware before flashing this ROM.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Samsung Galaxy Tab S6 Lite


12. Sony

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. Sony Xperia 5 (bahamut) PixelOS 12.0 November 10, 2021
2. Sony Xperia 10 II (pdx201) PixelOS 12.0 November 10, 2021
3. Sony Xperia XZ Premium (maple) AOSP 12.0 October 29, 2021

12.1. Sony Xperia 5

Android 12 has arrived for the Sony Xperia 5 in the form of an unofficial build of the PixelOS 12.0 custom ROM. To know more, take a look at the thread linked below.

PixelOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Sony Xperia 5

12.2. Sony Xperia 10 II

Owners of the Xperia 10 II can now run Android 12, thanks to the unofficial build of the PixelOS 12.0 custom ROM linked below.

PixelOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Sony Xperia 10 II

12.3. Sony Xperia XZ Premium

Your age-old Xperia XZ Premium can now run Android 12, courtesy of a vanilla AOSP 12 ROM compiled on top of Sony-provided binaries. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread below.

AOSP 12.0 for the Sony Xperia XZ Premium


13. Xiaomi

Sr. No. Device, Device Forums, Codename Android 12 Custom ROM Date Added
1. Mi 5 (gemini) AospExtended 9.0 October 23, 2021
2. Mi 8 SE (sirius) Pixel Experience 12 November 19, 2021
3. Mi 9 (cepheus) ArrowOS 12.0 November 10, 2021
4. Mi 10T/10T Pro/Redmi K30S (apollo) ArrowOS 12.0 November 10, 2021
5. Mi 10T Lite/Mi 10i/Redmi Note 9 Pro 5G (gauguin) Pixel Experience 12 October 29, 2021
6. Mi 11 Lite 4G (courbet) ArrowOS 12.0 October 16, 2021
7. Mi A1 (tissot_sprout) AOSP 12.0 October 16, 2021
8. Mi A2 (jasmine_sprout) Pixel Experience 12 November 19, 2021
9. Mi A2 Lite (daisy_sprout) ArrowOS 12.0 November 19, 2021
10. Mi Mix 3 (perseus) xdroidsp 2.0 October 29, 2021
11. Mi Note 10 Lite (toco) Kang OS 3.0 October 23, 2021
12. Mi Pad 4 (clover)
Mi Pad 4 Plus (clover)
LineageOS 19.0 November 10, 2021
13. POCO F1 (beryllium) AospExtended 9.0 October 16, 2021
14. POCO F2 Pro/Redmi K30 Pro (lmi) Pixel Experience 12 October 23, 2021
15. POCO F3/Mi 11X/Redmi K40 (alioth) Arrow OS 12.0 October 23, 2021
16. POCO X2/Redmi K30 (phoenix) POSP 5.0 October 16, 2021
17. POCO X3 (surya) AOSP 12.0 October 16, 2021
18. POCO X3 Pro (vayu) ArrowOS 12.0 October 16, 2021
19. Redmi 5 (rosy) LineageOS 19.0 November 19, 2021
20. Redmi 5 Plus/Redmi Note 5 (vince) ArrowOS 12.0 October 16, 2021
21. Redmi 7 (onclite) VoltageOS 1.1 November 10, 2021
22. Redmi K20/Mi 9T (davinci) Evolution X November 19, 2021
23. Redmi K20 Pro/Mi 9T Pro (raphael) AOSP 12.0 October 5, 2021
24. Redmi K30 5G (picasso) ArrowOS 12.0 November 19, 2021
25. Redmi Note 5/Redmi Note 5 Pro (whyred) LineageOS 19.0 November 10, 2021
26. Redmi Note 6 Pro (tulip) Project Elixir 1.0 November 19, 2021
27. Redmi Note 7/7S (lavender) Weeb Project October 23, 2021
28. Redmi Note 7 Pro (violet) Project Elixir 1.0 October 29, 2021
29. Redmi Note 8 (ginkgo)
Redmi Note 8T (willow)
AOSP 12.0 October 8, 2021
30. Redmi Note 9S/9 Pro India/10 Lite India (curtana)
Redmi Note 9 Pro (joyeuse)
Redmi Note 9 Pro Max (excalibur)
POCO M2 Pro (gram)
Project Elixir 1.0 October 29, 2021
31. Redmi Note 9T/Redmi Note 9 5G (cannong/cannon) StatiXOS 5.0 November 10, 2021
32. Redmi Note 10 (mojito/sunny) Fluid 2.0 October 16, 2021
33. Redmi Note 10 Pro (sweet/sweetin)
Redmi Note 10 Pro Max (sweetin)
AOSP 12.0 October 8, 2021
34. Redmi S2/Y2 (ysl) AOSP 12.0 October 16, 2021

13.1. Mi 5

Launched back in 2016, the Snapdragon 820-powered Mi 5 can now run Android 12, thanks to an unofficial build of the AospExtended 9.0 custom ROM.

AospExtended 9.0 based on Android 12 for the Mi 5

13.2. Mi 8 SE

The Mi 8 SE userbase can now experience Android 12, courtesy of an unofficial build of the Pixel Experience custom ROM.

Pixel Experience 12 based on Android 12 for the Mi 8 SE

13.3. Mi 9

Android 12 has arrived on the Mi 9, thanks to the official ArrowOS maintainers for this device. To know more, take a look at the forum thread below.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Mi 9

13.4. Mi 10T/Mi 10T Pro/Redmi K30S

The Mi 10T and Mi 10T Pro have received a unified build of ArrowOS 12.0. The official ROM, which is also compatible with the China-only Redmi K30S, appears to be in good shape, with all basic hardware features working.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Mi 10T/Mi 10T Pro/Redmi K30S

13.5. Mi 10T Lite/Mi 10i/Redmi Note 9 Pro 5G

Those of you having a Mi 10T Lite (sold as the Mi 10i in India and the Redmi Note 9 Pro 5G in China) and want to try out vanilla Android 12 on your phone, then go right ahead and check out the Pixel Experience 12 build linked below.

Pixel Experience 12 based on Android 12 for the Mi 10T Lite/Mi 10i/Redmi Note 9 Pro 5G

13.6. Mi 11 Lite 4G

If you’re looking for an AOSP 12-based ROM instead of the MIUI skin on your Mi 11 Lite 4G, you can opt for the ArrowOS 12.0 beta build. The ROM appears to be stable, albeit SELinux is in permissive mode.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Mi 11 Lite 4G

13.7 Mi A1

Xiaomi didn’t update its first Android One device officially beyond Android Pie, but that doesn’t mean you can’t run the latest version of Android on this phone. In fact, a vanilla AOSP 12 ROM for the Mi A1 has already popped up in our forums. Check it out below.

AOSP 12.0 for the Mi A1

13.8. Mi A2

The Xiaomi Mi A2 gets a taste of Android 12 through the Pixel Experience custom ROM. Encryption is currently broken in the ROM, but if you’re ready to overlook it, you can have your first taste of the latest Android version.

Pixel Experience 12 based on Android 12 for the Mi A2

13.9. Mi A2 Lite

An official build of ArrowOS is now available for the Mi A2 Lite on top of Android 12. To know more, take a look at the forum thread below.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Mi A2 Lite

13.10 Mi Mix 3

The Mi Mix 3 gets a taste of Android 12 through the xdroidsp 2.0 custom ROM. This ROM has some issues with the second SIM and SELinux policies, but if you can overlook those, you can have your first taste of the latest Android version.

xdroidsp 2.0 based on Android 12 for the Mi Mix 3

13.11 Mi Note 10 Lite

If you have a Mi Note 10 Lite and want to try out Android 12 on your phone, then go right ahead and check out the official build of Kang OS 3.0 custom ROM linked below.

Kang OS 3.0 based on Android 12 for the Mi Note 10 Lite

13.12 Mi Pad 4 and Mi Pad 4 Plus

An unofficial unified build of LineageOS 19.0 is now available for the Mi Pad 4 and the Mi Pad 4 Plus. Give your tablet a new lease of life with Android 12 by following the link below.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Mi Pad 4 and Mi Pad 4 Plus

13.13. POCO F1

If you’re looking for an Android 12-based custom ROM for your POCO F1, you can try out the community build of AospExtended 9.0 ROM. There are some bugs, though, so ensure that you intimate yourself of the same before proceeding.

AospExtended 9.0 based on Android 12 for the POCO F1

13.14. POCO F2 Pro/Redmi K30 Pro

Those of you having a POCO F2 Pro (sold as the Redmi K30 Pro in China) and want to try out vanilla Android 12 on your phone, then go right ahead and check out the alpha build of Pixel Experience custom ROM linked below.

Pixel Experience 12 based on Android 12 for the POCO F2 Pro/Redmi K30 Pro

13.15. POCO F3/Mi 11X/Redmi K40

Apart from the official public beta version of Android 12 from Xiaomi, POCO F3/Mi 11X/Redmi K40 users can also try out the early build of Arrow OS 12.0 custom ROM to get a taste of the latest iteration of Android on their phone.

Arrow OS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the POCO F3/Mi 11X/Redmi K40

13.16. POCO X2/Redmi K30

The POCO X2 (the global edition of the Redmi K30) has received a taste of Android 12 courtesy of an unofficial POSP 5.0 build. The ROM offers a nearly stock Android experience, but it still has a couple of bugs that need to be ironed out.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the POCO X2/Redmi K30

13.17. POCO X3

The POCO X3 and the POCO X3 NFC share a common firmware — a design that helped these devices to get a unified AOSP 12 custom ROM. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

AOSP 12.0 for the POCO X3

13.18. POCO X3 Pro

If you’re looking for an AOSP 12-based ROM instead of the MIUI skin on your POCO X3 Pro, you can opt for the early release build of ArrowOS 12.0.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the POCO X3 Pro

13.19. Redmi 5

Your age-old Redmi 5 can now run Android 12, courtesy of an unofficial LineageOS 19.0 custom ROM. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread below.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Redmi 5

13.20. Redmi 5 Plus/Redmi Note 5

It’s great to see that development for the Redmi 5 Plus (sold as the Redmi Note 5 in India) is still going strong, as an unofficial build of ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 is now available for this phone. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Redmi 5 Plus/Redmi Note 5

13.21. Redmi 7

Released back in 2019, the budget Redmi 7 can now run Android 12, thanks to the VoltageOS custom ROM project. If you want to try out the latest Android version on your phone, then go right ahead and check out the thread linked below.

VoltageOS 1.1 based on Android 12 for the Redmi 7

13.22. Redmi K20/Mi 9T

Apart from the regional branding, the Redmi K20 and the Mi 9T share a common firmware. This is the reason why both of these devices have now received a unified Android 12 custom ROM in the form of Evolution X. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

Evolution X based on Android 12 for the Redmi K20/Mi 9T

13.23. Redmi K20 Pro/Mi 9T Pro

The Qualcomm Snapdragon 855-powered Redmi K20 Pro (sold as the Mi 9T Pro in certain regions) is the first phone to receive an Android 12 custom ROM. Grab the latest build of the ROM from the thread below and give it a shot.

AOSP 12.0 for the Redmi K20 Pro/Mi 9T Pro

13.24. Redmi K30 5G

The Qualcomm Snapdragon 765G-powered Redmi K30 5G can now run Android 12, courtesy of the ArrowOS project. To know more about this ROM, take a look at the thread linked below.

ArrowOS 12.0 based on Android 12 for the Redmi K30 5G

13.25. Redmi Note 5/Redmi Note 5 Pro

An unofficial build of the popular LineageOS custom ROM based on Android 12 is now available for the Redmi Note 5 Pro (also known as simply the Redmi Note 5 in some regions). Notably, the ROM ships with a source-built 4.19 kernel.

LineageOS 19.0 based on Android 12 for the Redmi Note 5/Redmi Note 5 Pro

13.26. Redmi Note 6 Pro

Xiaomi didn’t update the Redmi Note 6 Pro beyond Android Pie, but that doesn’t mean you can’t run the latest version of Android on this phone. An official build of the Project Elixir custom ROM now brings Android 12 to the Redmi Note 6 Pro userbase.

Project Elixir 1.0 based on Android 12 for the Redmi Note 6 Pro

13.27. Redmi Note 7/7S

The Redmi Note 7 and the Redmi Note 7S share a common firmware, which is why both of these devices have now received a unified Android 12 custom ROM in the form of Weeb Project. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

Weeb Project based on Android 12 for the Redmi Note 7/7S

13.28. Redmi Note 7 Pro

The “Pro” variant of the Redmi Note 7 gets a taste of Android 12, thanks to an official build of the Project Elixir 1.0 custom ROM. Check it out below.

Project Elixir 1.0 based on Android 12 for the Redmi Note 7 Pro

13.29. Redmi Note 8 and Redmi Note 8T

The Redmi Note 8 and the Note 8T have received a unified Android 12-based AOSP ROM. If you are ready to ignore some minor glitches, the ROM appears to be in pretty good shape for something that is being based on a brand new OS version that was launched this week.

AOSP 12.0 for the Redmi Note 8/8T

13.30. Redmi Note 9S/9 Pro India/10 Lite India, Redmi Note 9 Pro, Redmi Note 9 Pro Max, and POCO M2 Pro

Xiaomi has a bunch of Qualcomm Snapdragon 720G-powered devices in its portfolio with a very similar hardware configuration. All those devices – collectively known as “miatoll” – have received a unified build of Project Elixir 1.0 on top of Android 12.

Project Elixir 1.0 based on Android 12 for the Redmi Note 9S/9 Pro India/10 Lite India, Redmi Note 9 Pro, Redmi Note 9 Pro Max, and POCO M2 Pro

13.31. Redmi Note 9T/Redmi Note 9 5G

Xiaomi has yet to publish the stable Android 12 update for the Redmi Note 9T (sold as the Redmi Note 9 5G in China), but a pure Android 12-based AOSP ROM for this device is already available on our forums. Check it out below!

StatiXOS 5.0 based on Android 12 for the Redmi Note 9T/Redmi Note 9 5G

13.32. Redmi Note 10

If you have a Redmi Note 10 and want to try out Android 12 on your phone, then go right ahead and check out the unofficial build of Fluid 2.0 custom ROM linked below.

Fluid 2.0 based on Android 12 for the Redmi Note 10

13.33. Redmi Note 10 Pro and Redmi Note 10 Pro Max

An unofficial build of AOSP 12.0 brings vanilla Android 12 experience to the Redmi Note 10 Pro. The ROM is also compatible with the Redmi Note 10 Pro Max. If you would like to try it out, head on over to the forum thread linked below.

AOSP 12.0 for the Redmi Note 10 Pro/Pro Max

13.34. Redmi S2/Y2

If you still have a Redmi Y2 (sold as the Redmi S2 in China) lying around, you can now flash this vanilla AOSP ROM to get a taste of Android 12. There are a few bugs that you would need to deal with, though. For instance, the Goodix fingerprint sensor is buggy, and SELinux is set as permissive.

AOSP 12.0 for the Redmi S2/Y2



Android 12 Google Apps

Apart from the ROMs mentioned above, we are going to be seeing a lot of custom builds of Android 12 released in the coming weeks. However, not all custom ROMs ship with pre-installed Google apps. In case you’re looking for a suitable GApps distribution, then you’ll be happy to know that the maintainers have already laid the groundwork to support the latest version of Android.

1. BiTGApps

XDA Senior Member TheHitMan has recently released an alpha version of the BiTGApps package. The new branch, tagged as 3.0, focuses specifically on Android 12.

Download BiTGApps

2. NikGapps

The maintainer of the NikGapps project, XDA Senior Member Nikhil, has also started releasing Android 12-comaptible GApps packages.

Download NikGapps



Have you spotted a custom ROM on our forums for a device we haven’t covered yet? Let us know in the comments below!

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One UI 4 beta based on Android 12 goes live for the U.S. Samsung Galaxy S20 and Galaxy Note 20 https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-galaxy-s20-note-20-us-android-12-one-ui-4-beta/ https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-galaxy-s20-note-20-us-android-12-one-ui-4-beta/#respond Thu, 18 Nov 2021 12:15:24 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=557479 One UI 4 is Samsung’s latest customized build of Android based on Android 12. 2021’s Galaxy S21 series has recently started receiving the first stable release of One UI 4.0 across the globe. Older flagships, such as the Galaxy Note 20 and Galaxy S20 lineup boarded the update train too, as the Exynos-powered global variants

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One UI 4 is Samsung’s latest customized build of Android based on Android 12. 2021’s Galaxy S21 series has recently started receiving the first stable release of One UI 4.0 across the globe. Older flagships, such as the Galaxy Note 20 and Galaxy S20 lineup boarded the update train too, as the Exynos-powered global variants of these devices got their first beta build of One UI 4.0 a few days ago. The Korean OEM is now expanding the beta initiative to the western hemisphere – with a catch. The Snapdragon Galaxy S20 and Galaxy Note 20 can now get a taste of Android 12, but only the U.S. carrier-unlocked models are eligible for the beta testing.

Samsung Galaxy S20 US One UI 4 beta notice Samsung Galaxy S20 US One UI 4 beta OTA
Screenshot courtesy: u/imthatjeffguy on Reddit

Just a day ago, the beta notice for the U.S. region went live inside the Samsung Members app. Those who registered are now getting the initial One UI 4 beta for their Galaxy S20 or Galaxy Note 20 in the form of software version ZUK7. Matter of fact, the Snapdragon carrier-unlocked units (model number ends with U1) receives a slightly newer build compared to the Exynos counterpart (they got ZUK1). In both cases, Samsung bumps up the Android security patch level to November 2021.

XDA Forums: Samsung Galaxy S20/S20+/S20 Ultra || Galaxy Note 20 || Galaxy Note 20 Ultra 

In case you want to take this software release for a spin without enrolling yourself through the Samsung Members app, you can download the appropriate OTA package for your model from our One UI 4 update tracker and sideload it using the stock recovery environment. While you do get the opportunity to try out the latest firmware release from Samsung, with its revamped UI and host of new features, before it is rolled out to the public, keep in mind that this comes with the risk of system instability and broken features. Fortunately, Samsung has yet to increment the bootloader version in these beta builds, which means you can still revert back to the stable Android 11/One UI 3 firmware by performing a manual flash.

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How to download Android 12 for Google Pixel and other Android devices https://www.xda-developers.com/how-to-download-android-12/ https://www.xda-developers.com/how-to-download-android-12/#respond Wed, 17 Nov 2021 10:00:42 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=395639 The wait is finally over — Android 12 is here as Google has officially kicked off the update rollout via stable channel. If you’re the lucky owner of a Google Pixel 5a, Pixel 5, Pixel 4a 5G, Pixel 4a, Pixel 4, Pixel 4 XL, Pixel 3a, Pixel 3a XL, Pixel 3, or the Pixel 3

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The wait is finally over — Android 12 is here as Google has officially kicked off the update rollout via stable channel. If you’re the lucky owner of a Google Pixel 5a, Pixel 5, Pixel 4a 5G, Pixel 4a, Pixel 4, Pixel 4 XL, Pixel 3a, Pixel 3a XL, Pixel 3, or the Pixel 3 XL, then you have the opportunity to try out the next major Android version right now. With Beta 1, Generic System Images (GSI) are also available, which means the early builds of Android 12 can be booted on non-Google Project Treble compatible devices as well.

Alongside the supported Google Pixel devices, Android 12 is also available on a wide range of devices from different OEMs — either in the form of beta or stable builds. In case you’re looking for the answer to the question “when will my phone get Android 12?“, take a look at the following OEM-specific trackers to find out:

This page will serve as a one-stop download index for all the Android 12 stable, Beta, and Developer Preview releases. We will keep the page updated with the latest OTAs and factory images for the supported Pixel series of devices. You can learn how to install the Android 12 on Google Pixel smartphones by visiting our dedicated guide here.

Navigate this page:


Download Android 12 Stable for Google Pixel devices

Mid-November 2021 release

The Google Pixel 6 series has received a special mid-November build to improve the fingerprint sensor’s performance.

Device OTA Factory Image
Google Pixel 6 Download Link:

Download Link:

Google Pixel 6 Pro Download Link:

Download Link:


November 2021 release

For Google Pixel devices, you can download the latest stable Android 12 build with the November 2021 security patches from the links below:


October 2021 release

For Google Pixel devices, you can download the first stable Android 12 build with the October 2021 security patches from the links below:



Android 12 Beta and Developer Preview builds

If you need to download older beta and/or Developer Preview builds, you can found them listed below:

Beta and Developer Preview builds

It is worth mentioning that the beta/preview builds don’t have all the new software features you can associate with the final release of Android 12. To be precise, Google gave developers the chance to test their apps against new Android platform APIs months before the new Android version became available for the general public. Hence, the builds mentioned below are aimed at the developer community only and are not intended to be used by end-users.

Navigate this section:

Download Android 12 Beta 5

Google Pixel

GSI Downloads

Architecture GSI Package
x86_64+GMS Download Link
ARM64+GMS Download Link
x86_64 Download Link
ARM64 Download Link

Download Android 12 Beta 4.1

Google Pixel

GSI Downloads

Architecture GSI Package
x86_64+GMS Download Link
ARM64+GMS Download Link
x86_64 Download Link
ARM64 Download Link

Download Android 12 Beta 4

Google Pixel

GSI Downloads

Architecture GSI Package
x86_64+GMS Download Link
ARM64+GMS Download Link
x86_64 Download Link
ARM64 Download Link

Download Android 12 Beta 3.1

Google Pixel

GSI Downloads

Architecture GSI Package
x86_64+GMS Download Link
ARM64+GMS Download Link
x86_64 Download Link
ARM64 Download Link

Download Android 12 Beta 3

Google Pixel

GSI Downloads

Architecture GSI Package
x86_64+GMS Download Link
ARM64+GMS Download Link
x86_64 Download Link
ARM64 Download Link

Download Android 12 Beta 2.1

Google Pixel

GSI Downloads

Architecture GSI Package
x86_64+GMS Download Link
ARM64+GMS Download Link
x86_64 Download Link
ARM64 Download Link

Download Android 12 Beta 2

Google Pixel

GSI Downloads

Architecture GSI Package
x86_64+GMS Download Link
ARM64+GMS Download Link
x86_64 Download Link
ARM64 Download Link

Download Android 12 Beta 1

Google Pixel

GSI Downloads

Architecture GSI Package
x86_64+GMS Download Link
ARM64+GMS Download Link
x86_64 Download Link
ARM64 Download Link

Download Android 12 Developer Preview 3


Download Android 12 Developer Preview 2.2


Download Android 12 Developer Preview 2.1


Download Android 12 Developer Preview 2


Download Android 12 Developer Preview 1.1


Download Android 12 Developer Preview 1

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How to install Android 12 on Google Pixel and other Android devices https://www.xda-developers.com/how-to-install-android-12/ https://www.xda-developers.com/how-to-install-android-12/#respond Wed, 17 Nov 2021 10:00:22 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=395709 It’s that time of year again! Android 12, i.e. the next major release of Android is now available via stable channel. For lucky owners of the Google Pixel 3, Pixel 3 XL, Pixel 3a, Pixel 3a XL, Pixel 4, Pixel 4 XL, Pixel 4a, Pixel 4a 5G, Pixel 5, Pixel 5a, Pixel 6, or Pixel

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It’s that time of year again! Android 12, i.e. the next major release of Android is now available via stable channel. For lucky owners of the Google Pixel 3, Pixel 3 XL, Pixel 3a, Pixel 3a XL, Pixel 4, Pixel 4 XL, Pixel 4a, Pixel 4a 5G, Pixel 5, Pixel 5a, Pixel 6, or Pixel 6 Pro, you’ll be among the first users to see what new OS update has to offer.

If you have any of the aforementioned Pixel smartphones running stable Android 11 and wondering how you can install Android 12, just scroll down as we have a tutorial ready for you. Keep in mind that Google will be providing an incremental OTA for existing beta users to move to the stable release, but they can also opt for a manual flashing. You will need a PC/Mac with ADB and Fastboot installed to successfully execute the installation process, once you have downloaded the relevant Android 12 release packages.

Alongside supported Google Pixel devices, Android 12 is also made available in the form of a GSI that can be flashed on a much wider range of devices. OEMs have joined in on the party as well, and you can flash Beta 1 on the following phones:

Warning: The updates are intended for developers only, so don’t install them on your daily-driver. These builds are early releases and contain bugs and other system instabilities. Even if the flashing process doesn’t necessarily wipe your device, it is highly recommended that you back up your data before proceeding. Users are advised to exercise caution.

The three methods to install the update are:


Method 1: Sideload Android 12 via Recovery and ADB

To install the stable build, you need to sideload the appropriate OTA package for your device from Recovery through ADB. This method will also work for Google Pixel devices with a locked bootloader.

  1. Download the update .zip file on your computer from here. For convenience, you can rename this file to a simpler name and place the file in the directory where ADB is located on your computer.
  2. Optional but recommended: Verify the SHA-256 checksum of the file you have downloaded to ensure that the file has been downloaded completely and correctly.
  3. Enable USB Debugging on your phone — Go to Settings > About Phone > Tap “Build Number” 7 times, (optionally) enter your pattern, PIN or password to enable Developer Options, and then navigate to Settings > Developer Options > Enable “USB Debugging”.
  4. Connect your phone to your computer. Authorize your computer connection on your phone when the prompt comes up on your phone, if this is the first time you are connecting with this ADB computer.
  5. On your computer, run the command:
    adb reboot recovery
  6. Your phone should now be in Recovery mode.
  7. On your phone, select the option “Apply Update from ADB”
  8. On your computer, run the command:
    adb devices

    This should return a device serial with the “sideload” next to its name, indicating that your device is connected to the computer in sideload mode.

  9. On your computer, run the command:
    adb sideload "filename".zip

    Where “filename” is to be replaced with the name of the file downloaded in Step 1

  10. The update should install on your phone. Once the installation is complete, choose “Reboot system now” on your phone to reboot into Android 12.

Method 2: Flashing full Factory Image via Fastboot

If you have an unlocked bootloader on a Google Pixel device, you need to flash the full factory image of the Android 12 via Fastboot. Usually, this is done through a flash-all.sh or flash-all.bat script file that is included in the downloaded file, but its default configuration also wipes the device completely. You can, however, retain your data by deleting the “-w” wipe attribute from the command within the script.

  1. Download the factory image .zip file on your computer from here.
  2. Optional but recommended: Verify the SHA-256 checksum of the file you have downloaded to ensure that the file has been downloaded completely and correctly.
  3. Extract the .zip file, and copy and paste the resultant files onto your ADB and fastboot folder on your computer for convenience.
  4. Optional: The resultant files would contain a flash-all.sh or flash-all.bat script file. Using a text editor, open the flash-all.sh if you’re on macOS/Linux or the flash-all.bat script file if you’re on Windows. Find and remove/delete the -w flag in the fastboot update command. This will skip the data wipe for your phone. To avoid compatibility issues, a data wipe is recommended though.
  5. Enable USB Debugging on your phone — Go to Settings > About Phone > Tap “Build Number” 7 times, (optionally) enter your pattern, PIN or password to enable Developer Options, and then navigate to Settings > Developer Options > Enable “USB Debugging”.
  6. Connect your phone to your computer. Authorize your computer connection on your phone when the prompt comes up on your phone, if this is the first time you are connecting with this ADB computer.
  7. On your computer, run:
    adb reboot bootloader

    This will reboot your phone into Fastboot mode.

  8. On your Mac/Linux PC, run:
    flash-all

    This command executes the flash-all.sh script file, which will then install the necessary bootloader, baseband firmware, and operating system. If you are on Windows, you can simply double click the flash-all.bat file.

  9. Once the script finishes, your device will reboot into the new OS.

Method 3: Install Android 12 GSI

Even if you don’t own a compatible Pixel smartphone, you can still install Google’s official GSI binaries to test Android 12, provided your device is compatible with Project Treble. You also need an unlocked bootloader. The last thing that we need to say is that flashing a GSI will require you to factory reset your device, so be sure you’re prepared to lose app data before you proceed with this! We recommend you make an off-device backup (such as on your PC or an SD Card) in case anything goes wrong.

  1. Download links for the official Android 12 Beta GSIs can be found here. Google has yet to publish GSIs based on the stable release. You should download the appropriate version based on your device’s architecture. To see which architecture your device has, run the following command:
    adb shell getprop ro.product.cpu.abi
  2. Optional but recommended: Verify the SHA-256 checksum of the file you have downloaded to ensure that the file has been downloaded completely and correctly.
  3. Extract the .zip file, and copy and paste the resultant files (system.img and vbmeta.img) onto your ADB and fastboot folder on your computer for convenience.
  4. Enable USB Debugging on your phone — Go to Settings > About Phone > Tap “Build Number” 7 times, (optionally) enter your pattern, PIN or password to enable Developer Options, and then navigate to Settings > Developer Options > Enable “USB Debugging”.
  5. Connect your phone to your computer. Authorize your computer connection on your phone when the prompt comes up on your phone, if this is the first time you are connecting with this ADB computer.
  6. On your computer, run:
    adb reboot bootloader

    This will reboot your phone into Fastboot mode.

  7. As mentioned earlier, the bootloader of the target device must be unlocked beforehand.
  8. Next, we need to disable Android Verified Boot (AVB). To do that, run the following command:
    fastboot flash vbmeta vbmeta.img
  9. Optional but recommended: Enter the following to wipe the system partition:
    fastboot erase system
  10. Flash the Android 12 GSI:
    fastboot flash system system.img
  11. Allow the image to flash, it could take a few minutes. Once that’s done, wipe the userdata partition:
    fastboot -w
  12. Finally, reboot your device:
    fastboot reboot
  13. Hopefully, your device should boot into Android 12.

Be sure to follow our Android 12 tag for all the latest news on the next major Android version!

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Gmail’s new Material You widget is finally rolling out https://www.xda-developers.com/gmails-new-material-you-widget-is-finally-rolling-out/ https://www.xda-developers.com/gmails-new-material-you-widget-is-finally-rolling-out/#respond Wed, 17 Nov 2021 09:04:56 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=556683 When Google unveiled the Pixel 6 series last month, it teased some new Material You widgets for Gmail, YouTube Music, and Google Drive. Google Drive received a redesigned “Suggested files” Material You widget earlier this month, and now Gmail is also joining the party. When Gmail received the Material You redesign in September, Google only

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When Google unveiled the Pixel 6 series last month, it teased some new Material You widgets for Gmail, YouTube Music, and Google Drive. Google Drive received a redesigned “Suggested files” Material You widget earlier this month, and now Gmail is also joining the party.

When Gmail received the Material You redesign in September, Google only touched up the existing widget with dynamic color support.  But as 9to5Google reports, the new Gmail widget that was teased last month is now finally rolling out.

It looks quite similar to the Google Keep widget. As you can see in the screenshots attached below, it has a rounded square FAB in the top-right corner with an unread counter appearing next to it. Emails appear as rounded cards, and there’s an archive button at the right. When you increase the width, the widget also brings up a bottom bar, showing quick shortcuts for Chat, Spaces, and Meet. As you would expect, the widget fully supports Android 12’s dynamic theming and takes on the dominant color of your current wallpaper.

Gmail old homescreen widget Gmail Material You widget Gmail Material You widget with bottom bar Gmail Material You widget

Screenshots credit: 9to5Google

As you can see, the new Material You widget is much more powerful and useful than the old one, which only showed a list of email entries and had a FAB in the bottom corner.

As mentioned earlier, the Google Drive app has also received a new widget that lets you quickly access suggested files and search. It features a search bar, an upload button that opens the system file picker, and a FAB in the bottom right corner.

The new homescreen widget is rolling out with the Gmail app version 2021.10.31.x. To try it out, update your Gmail app from the Google Play Store. If the update isn’t live for you, you can sideload the latest APK from APKMirror.

Gmail (Free, Google Play) →

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[Update: US rollout schedule] Samsung reveals the One UI 4.0 upgrade rollout schedule for its devices https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-revealed-one-ui-4-0-upgrade-schedule/ https://www.xda-developers.com/samsung-revealed-one-ui-4-0-upgrade-schedule/#respond Wed, 17 Nov 2021 06:56:16 +0000 https://www.xda-developers.com/?p=554975 Over the last few weeks, Samsung has released One UI 4.0 beta updates based on Android 12 to quite a few of its devices. The flagship Galaxy S21 series has already received four closed beta builds of One UI 4.0, while older models like the Galaxy S20 series and Galaxy Note 20 series just joined

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Update (11/17/2021 @ 01:56 ET): Samsung has officially shared the One UI 4.0 rollout timeline for the US. Scroll to the bottom for more information. The article as published on November 15, 2021, is preserved below.

Over the last few weeks, Samsung has released One UI 4.0 beta updates based on Android 12 to quite a few of its devices. The flagship Galaxy S21 series has already received four closed beta builds of One UI 4.0, while older models like the Galaxy S20 series and Galaxy Note 20 series just joined the beta program. The company’s latest foldables, the Galaxy Z Fold 3 and Galaxy Z Flip 3, have also received beta builds of Samsung’s latest software skin, and a new notice on the Samsung Members app suggests that the stable builds might start rolling out soon.

Hands-on with Samsung One UI 4.0 Beta 2: Theming, Virtual RAM, and more!

Samsung seems to have accidentally pushed a notice on the Samsung Members app (via @FrontTron), revealing the One UI 4.0 stable rollout schedule for its devices. As per the notice, One UI 4.0 based on Android 12 will start rolling out to the Galaxy S21 series this month, followed by the Galaxy Z Fold 3, Galaxy Z Flip 3, Galaxy Note 20 series, Galaxy S20 series, Galaxy Z Fold 2, and Galaxy Z Flip in December. Check out the image attached below to see when other devices in Samsung’s portfolio will receive the new update:

Samsung One UI 4.0 Android 12 upgrade schedule

(Via: @FrontTron)

Samsung rolled out a similar notice on the Samsung Members app to users in Brazil. However, the rollout schedule isn’t the same in that region. As per a recent post on the Samsung community forums, the company plans to release stable builds of One UI 4.0 based on Android 12 to the Galaxy Z Fold 3 in December this year, followed by the Galaxy S21 series, the Galaxy Z Flip 3, the Galaxy Z Flip, and Galaxy Z Fold 2 in January next year. See the table below for the rollout schedule for other Samsung devices in Brazil:

One UI 4.0 Brazil rollout schedule

Rollout schedule Models
December 2021
  • Galaxy Z Fold 3
January 2022
  • Galaxy Z Fold
  • Galaxy Z Flip
  • Galaxy Z Fold 2
  • Galaxy Z Flip 3
  • Galaxy S21
  • Galaxy S21+
  • Galaxy S21 Ultra
February 2022
  • Galaxy S10+
  • Galaxy S20
  • Galaxy S20+
  • Galaxy S20 Ultra
  • Galaxy Note 20
  • Galaxy Note 20 Ultra
  • Galaxy S20 FE
  • Galaxy Tab S7
  • Galaxy A52s
  • Galaxy A72
March 2022
  • Galaxy S10e
  • Galaxy S10
  • Galaxy Note 10e
  • Galaxy Note 10
  • Galaxy S10 Lite
  • Galaxy Note 10 Lite
  • Galaxy A52
  • Galaxy A52 5G
April 2022
  • Galaxy M62
  • Galaxy Tab S7 FE
May 2022
  • Galaxy Tab S6
  • Galaxy Tab S6 Lite
  • Galaxy A51
  • Galaxy M52 5G
June 2022
  • Galaxy M31
  • Galaxy M51
  • Galaxy Tab A7
  • Galaxy M21s
  • Galaxy A71
  • Galaxy A32 5G
  • Galaxy M22
  • Galaxy M32
  • Galaxy Tab A7 Lite
  • Galaxy A32
July 2022
  • Galaxy XCover Pro
  • Galaxy A01
  • Galaxy A31
  • Galaxy A12
  • Galaxy A02s
  • Galaxy A22
  • Galaxy M12
  • Galaxy A11
  • Galaxy A21s
  • Galaxy A03s
August 2022
  • Galaxy A11
  • Galaxy A21s
  • Galaxy A03s

Note that Samsung has since removed the notice in both regions. This leads us to believe that the company is still ironing out the final details, and it may change the rollout schedule for some devices. However, Samsung seems to have finalized the One UI 4.0 rollout schedule for the Galaxy S21 series as Canadian telecom giants Rogers and Telus have confirmed that the Android 12 update will roll out to the devices on November 23. This suggests that unlocked models in other regions will likely receive the update by next week.


Update: Stable One UI 4.0 begins rolling out today for the Samsung Galaxy S21 series

Samsung has officially announced that the stable rollout of One UI 4.0 has officially begun, starting with the Samsung Galaxy S21, Galaxy S21+, and Galaxy S21 Ultra, with rollout beginning today. We’ll shortly be updating our One UI 4 Update Tracker with download links so you can easily sideload the new update.

The company did not reveal further timelines beyond its flagship S series, but these are the devices that will get the update:

  • Galaxy S20, S20+, S20 Ultra
  • Galaxy S20 FE
  • Galaxy Note20, Note20 Ultra
  • Galaxy S10, S10e, S10+, S10 5G
  • Galaxy Note10, Note 10+
  • Galaxy Fold
  • Galaxy Z Fold 3
  • Galaxy Z Flip 3
  • Galaxy Z Fold 2
  • Galaxy Z Flip, Z Flip 5G
  • Galaxy A82 5G
  • Galaxy A72
  • Galaxy A52, A52 5G, A52s 5G
  • Galaxy A42 5G
  • Galaxy Tab S7, Tab S7+

Update: One UI 4.0 rollout timeline for the US

Samsung has now shared the official One UI 4.0 rollout timeline for the US region through the Samsung Members app (via Android Authority). As per the schedule, Samsung plans to release the stable Android 12 update to the Galaxy Z Fold 3 and Galaxy Z Flip 3 next month, followed by the Galaxy S20 series, Galaxy Note 20 series, and older foldables in January next year. See the table below for the rollout schedule for other Samsung devices in the US:

One UI 4.0 US rollout schedule

Rollout schedule Models
December 2021
  • Galaxy Z Fold 3
  • Galaxy Z Flip 3
January 2022
  • Galaxy S20+
  • Galaxy S20 Ultra
  • Galaxy S20 FE
  • Galaxy Note 10 series
  • Galaxy Note 20 series
  • Galaxy Z Flip
  • Galaxy Z Flip 5G
  • Galaxy Fold
  • Galaxy Z Fold 2
February 2022
  • Galaxy S20
  • Galaxy S10 series
  • Galaxy A52 5G
  • Galaxy Tab S7
  • Galaxy Tab S7+
March 2022
  • Galaxy Tab S7 FE
April 2022
  • Galaxy A51
  • Galaxy A51 5G
  • Galaxy A71 5G
  • Galaxy Tab S7 FE 5G
  • Galaxy Tab S6 Lite
May 2022
  • Galaxy A32 5G
  • Galaxy A42 5G
  • Galaxy Tab S6
  • Galaxy Tab A7 (2020)
  • Galaxy Tab Active 3
June 2022
  • Galaxy XCover Pro
  • Galaxy Tab A7 Lite
July 2022
  • Galaxy A21
  • Galaxy A12
August 2022
  • Galaxy A02s
  • Galaxy A01
  • Galaxy A11

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